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Table 6 Odds for small for gestational age (SGA) and caffeine intake from different sources

From: Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study

Caffeine source SGA (Marsal) SGA (Skjaerven) SGA (Gardosi)
  ORa 95% CI Pvalueb ORa 95% CI Pvalueb ORa 95% CI Pvalueb
Unadjusted:
Total 1.24 1.16 to 1.31 <10-11 1.17 1.13 to 1.20 <10-24 1.07 1.04 to 1.11 <10-4
Coffee, all types 1.21 1.13 to 1.30 <10-7 1.16 1.12 to 1.20 <10-17 1.10 1.06 to 1.13 <10-7
Caffeinated soft drinksc 1.35 1.09 to 1.67 0.007 1.27 1.14 to 1.41 <10-5 1.25 1.13 to 1.39 <10-4
Black tea 1.42 1.16 to 1.73 <10-3 1.20 1.09 to 1.33 <10-3 0.92 0.82 to 1.02 0.1
Chocolate 0.89 0.28 to 2.83 0.8 1.04 0.62 to 1.75 0.9 0.16 0.09 to 0.28 <10-9
Adjusted:
Total 1.18 1.10 to 1.26 <10-5 1.15 1.11 to 1.19 <10-15 1.11 1.08 to 1.15 <10-9
Coffee, all types 1.14 1.06 to 1.23 <10-3 1.13 1.09 to 1.17 <10-10 1.11 1.07 to 1.16 <10-7
Caffeinated soft drinksc 1.22 0.97 to 1.53 0.08 1.29 1.16 to 1.43 <10-5 1.19 1.06 to 1.33 0.002
Black tea 1.50 1.22 to 1.83 <10-4 1.21 1.09 to 1.34 <10-3 1.11 0.99 to 1.23 0.06
Chocolate 1.07 0.32 to 3.54 0.9 1.06 0.61 to 1.84 0.8 0.62 0.34 to 1.12 0.1
  1. Odds for SGA and caffeine intake from different sources (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data), logistic regression for four caffeine sources as well as total caffeine intake, n = 59,123 in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 2002 to 2009. SGA definition based on growth curves according to Marsal (ultrasound based), Skjaerven (population based) or Gardosi (customized).
  2. aOR: odds ratio, compared to non-SGA, per 100 mg additional caffeine intake/day.
  3. b P value, logistic regression. Adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, history of preterm delivery, baby's sex, nausea during second trimester, smoking habits, passive smoking, nicotine intake from other sources, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, energy intake, maternal education, marital status and household income. In the analysis of the separate caffeine sources, these were mutually adjusted (coffee, caffeinated soft drinks, black tea and chocolate).
  4. cCaffeinated soft drinks included in the FFQ: Coca Cola/Pepsi with sugar, Coca Cola light, Pepsi Light.