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Table 2 Effects of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes, intention-to-treat analyses

From: A multifactorial interdisciplinary intervention reduces frailty in older people: randomized trial

  Intervention group Control group Percentage difference between groups or coefficienta P b
Primary outcomes
Frailty c
3 months (number (%)) 69 out of 108 (64%) 88 out of 117 (75%) -11.3% (-23.3% to 0.7%) 0.07
12 months (number (%)) 66 out of 107 (62%) 81 out of 106 (76%) -14.7% (-27.0% to -2.4%) 0.02
Change from 0 to 3 months 108, 0.56 ±1.10 117, 0.39 ±0.92 -0.18 (-0.43 to 0.08) 0.17
Change from 0 to 12 months 107, 0.80 ±1.19 106, 0.41 ±1.02 -0.41 (-0.68 to -0.14) <0.01
Mobility, Short Physical Performance Battery c
3-month mean 12-month mean Change from 0 to 3 months Change from 0 to 12 months 107, 5.40 ±2.32 107, 5.83 ±2.82 107, -0.15 ±1.89 107, -0.52 ±2.47 116, 5.72 ±2.30 108, 4.69 ±2.91 116, 0.01 ±1.72 108, 0.98 ±2.30 0.05 (-0.42 to 0.51) 1.44 (0.80 to 2.07) 0.85 <0.001
Mobility, lower extremity continuous summary performance score c
3-month mean 12-month mean Change from 0 to 3 months Change from 0 to 12 months 107, 1.72 ±0.57 107, 1.77 ±0.59 107, 0.04 ±0.49 107, 0.00 ±0.50 116, 1.80 ±0.52 108, 1.49 ±0.75 116, 0.06 ±0.38 108, 0.35 ±0.63 -0.00 (-0.12 to 0.11) 0.34 (0.19 to 0.49) 0.96 <0.001
Secondary outcomes
Barthel Index c
3-month mean 12-month mean Change from 0 to 3 months Changes from 0 to 12 months 108, 94.2 ±11.2 106, 89.5 ±17.5 108, 0.56 ±7.92 106, 5.56 ±14.61 117, 93.2 ±13.9 108, 86.1 ±24.7 116, -0.80 ±10.87 107, 6.14 ±20.76 -0.68 (-3.05 to 1.68) 0.67 (-4.23 to 5.56) 0.57 0.79
Geriatric Depression Scale c
3-month mean 12-month mean Change from 0 to 3 months Change from 0 to 12 months 108, 4.89 ±3.14 106, 4.62 ±3.33 108, -0.19 ±2.30 106, 0.11 ±2.27 117, 4.90 ±3.24 108, 4.98 ±3.16 117, 0.13 ±2.52 108, 0.02 ±2.90 0.22 (-0.37 to 0.82) -0.18 (-0.83 to 0.47) 0.46 0.59
EQ5D VAS c
3-month mean 12-month mean Change from 0 to 3 months Change from 0 to 12 months 108, 60.6 ±20.1 107, 57.5 ±20.8 108, -1.81 ±15.65 107, 0.41 ±18.93 117, 60.3 ±16.9 108, 57.7 ±19.7 117, -1.96 ±16.77 108, 1.12 ±20.62 0.04 (-3.93 to 4.00) 0.30 (-4.59 to 5.18) 0.99 0.91
  1. Data presented as number, mean, ±standard deviation, unless otherwise stated. aCoefficient from a linear regression model with follow-up values as a dependent variable and baseline values as a covariate. b P values, which were derived from chi-square test or linear regression models with baseline values as a covariate, are for the differences in rate or mean between intervention and control group. cThe Geriatric Depression Scale (short form) has scores between 0 and 15 with a higher score indicating more depressive symptoms. For the Mini Mental Status Examination, higher scores indicate higher cognitive function with a maximum score of 30. The Barthel Index has scores between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating better basic activities of daily living functioning. The Short Physical Performance Battery [7] has scores between 0 and 12, and the lower extremity continuous summary performance [15] scale has scores between 0 and 2.71; in both, better mobility function is indicated by a higher score. The EQ-5D (health-related quality of life) has scores between 5 and 15 with higher scores indicating worse health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D VAS has scores between 0 and 100 with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life. VAS: visual analog scale.