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Table 1 Overview of kidney biopsy findings in patients with connective tissue diseases

From: Renal involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases

Renal biopsy findings Connective tissue disease
Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) Sjögren syndrome [2, 6, 7], Rheumatoid arthritis [17]
Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis/IgA nephropathy Sjögren syndrome [2], Polymyositis [46, 50, 51], Dermatomyositis [58], Systemic lupus erythematosus [80], Rheumatoid arthritis [17, 138]
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) Sjögren syndrome [6], Systemic lupus erythematosus [81], Antiphospholipid syndrome [124], Rheumatoid arthritis [139]
Cryoglobulinemic membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis Sjögren syndrome [2, 6]
Minimal change disease Sjögren syndrome [6, 24], Polymyositis [52], Systemic lupus erythematosus [82, 83], Antiphospholipid syndrome [124], Rheumatoid arthritis [17]
Membranous nephropathy Sjögren syndrome [2, 6], Polymyositis [53], Dermatomyositis [5557], Class V lupus nephritis [78], Antiphospholipid syndrome [124], Rheumatoid arthritis [17, 133135]
Secondary renal amyloidosis Sjögren syndrome [18], Rheumatoid arthritis [17, 136, 137]
Thrombotic microangiopathy Antiphospholipid syndrome [119, 123], Scleroderma renal crisis [13]
Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis Dermatomyositis [49]
IgM nephropathy Systemic lupus erythematosus [81]
Collapsing glomerulopathy Systemic lupus erythematosus [79]
Lupus nephritis Class I to VI lupus nephritis [78], drug-induced proliferative lupus nephritis [142]
Fibrillary glomerulonephritis Antiphospholipid syndrome [125], Rheumatoid arthritis [140]
Necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (including drug-induced forms) Scleroderma [35], Rheumatoid arthritis [141]
Focal proliferative glomerulonephritis Rheumatoid arthritis [17]
Crescentic GN with FSGS Polymyositis [61]
C3 nephropathy Antiphospholipid syndrome [124]