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Table 3 Positive predictive values of computer-coded verbal autopsy methods versus physician-coded verbal autopsy reference standards

From: Performance of four computer-coded verbal autopsy methods for cause of death assignment compared with physician coding on 24,000 deaths in low- and middle-income countries

  Test cases Open-source random forest Open-source tariff method InterVA-4 Average for top cause (%)
Dataset   Top (%) Top 3 (%) Top (%) Top 3 (%) Top (%) Top 3 (%)  
China 400 35 57 36 70 N/A N/A 36
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation 400 33 55 34 53 N/A N/A 34
Million Death Study 6100 58 82 52 76 42a 63a 51
Agincourt 2900 45 77 42 69 42 58 43
Matlab 1600 49 74 52 74 48 64 50
Average 44 69 43 68 44 62  
  1. Top cause represents accuracy of the CCVA method’s most probable cause matching the cause assigned by PCVA; Top 3 represents whether CCVA’s three most probable causes contain the cause assigned by PCVA. Averages calculated across CCVA methods only use results for the top cause. aThe Million Death Study dataset used for InterVA-4 contained a sample of 552 cases, in which we extracted additional InterVA-4 indicators from the narratives.