Overall survival curves (Gompertz PH models, observed data, and the German life table) and two survival curves for the healthy and the unhealthy combination of lifestyle risk factors, respectively, the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort
aParticipants with pre-existing diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer were excluded. The healthy combination: never smoking, optimal BMI (22.5 to 24.9), no/light alcohol drinking and low processed/red meat consumption; the unhealthy combination: heavy smoking (>10 cigarettes/day), obesity (BMI ≥30), heavy alcohol drinking (>4 drinks/day for men and >1 drink/day for women) and high processed/red meat consumption (≥120 g/day). Other factors remained identical for these two groups and were fixed at their assumedly healthy level. BMI, body mass index; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; PH, proportional hazards.