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Table 2 HR (95% CI) of lifestyle risk factors for all-cause mortality, the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort a

From: Lifestyle risk factors and residual life expectancy at age 40: a German cohort study

      Men (n = 10,235)     Women (n = 12,234)
  Deaths     Univariate Multivariableb Deaths     Univariate Multivariableb
Smoking category       
Never smokers 209 1.00 1.00 273 1.00 1.00
Long-term quitters 313 1.29 (1.09, 1.54) 1.21 (1.01, 1.44) 84 1.01 (0.79, 1.29) 1.03 (0.80, 1.32)
Short-term quitters 118 2.13 (1.70, 2.68) 1.87 (1.49, 2.35) 33 1.10 (0.77, 1.58) 1.14 (0.79, 1.64)
Light smokers 71 2.26 (1.73, 2.96) 2.02 (1.54, 2.65) 66 1.93 (1.47, 2.53) 2.00 (1.52, 2.63)
Heavy smokers 329 4.20 (3.53, 5.00) 3.49 (2.90, 4.18) 103 2.82 (2.23, 3.55) 2.75 (2.16, 3.48)
Body weight status       
Optimal BMI 164 1.00 1.00 114 1.00 1.00
Low BMI 90 1.78 (1.37, 2.30) 1.61 (1.23, 2.07) 127 1.38 (1.07, 1.78) 1.34 (1.04, 1.73)
Overweight 535 1.28 (1.08, 1.53) 1.16 (0.97, 1.38) 185 1.10 (0.87, 1.39) 1.08 (0.85, 1.37)
Obesity 251 1.83 (1.50, 2.22) 1.51 (1.23, 1.86) 133 1.56 (1.21, 2.00) 1.55 (1.19, 2.02)
Alcoholic drinks/day       
≤2 (men)/ ≤0.5 (women) 494 1.00 1.00 343 1.00 1.00
2.1 to 4 (men)/ 0.6 to 1 (women) 299 1.36 (1.18, 1.57) 1.24 (1.07, 1.44) 101 0.87 (0.70, 1.09) 0.86 (0.69, 1.08)
>4 (men)/ >1 (women) 247 2.07 (1.78, 2.42) 1.50 (1.28, 1.75) 115 1.24 (1.00, 1.53) 1.15 (0.92, 1.44)
Leisure time physical activity       
Low versus high 555/485 1.11 (0.98, 1.26) 1.05 (0.93, 1.19) 310/249 1.24 (1.05, 1.46) 1.16 (0.98, 1.37)
Processed/red meat consumption       
High versus low 393/647 1.43 (1.26, 1.62) 1.21 (1.06, 1.38) 72/487 1.54 (1.20, 1.97) 1.40 (1.08, 1.80)
Vegetable/fruit consumption       
Low versus high 578/462 1.32 (1.16, 1.49) 1.19 (1.05, 1.35) 222/337 1.19 (1.01, 1.41) 1.11 (0.93, 1.32)
Cereal consumption       
Low versus high 596/444 1.19 (1.06, 1.35) 1.08 (0.96, 1.23) 407/152 1.10 (0.91, 1.33) 1.04 (0.86, 1.26)
Fish consumption       
Low versus high 427/613 1.11 (0.98, 1.26) 1.04 (0.91, 1.18) 296/263 1.20 (1.02, 1.42) 1.17 (0.99, 1.39)
Dairy product consumption       
High versus low 407/633 0.92 (0.81, 1.05) 1.07 (0.95, 1.22) 277/282 0.95 (0.81, 1.12) 1.02 (0.86, 1.21)
  1. aParticipants with pre-existing diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer were excluded. bThe lifestyle risk factors were mutually adjusted for. Education and self-reported hypertension and hyperlipidemia were also adjusted for as confounding factors. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HR, hazard ratio.