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Table 5 Bivariate association between health-harming behaviors and ACE count

From: National household survey of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with resilience to health-harming behaviors in England

Outcome All   ACE count, % χ² trend P
  % n 0 1 2 to 3 4+   
Sexual behavior         
 Unintended teenage pregnancy (<18 years) 5.5 3836 2.9 5.6 8.3 17.0 106.097 <0.001
 Early sexual initiation (<16 years) 16.8 3374 10.0 19.4 23.0 37.8 164.629 <0.001
Substance use         
 Smoking (current) 22.7 3885 17.7 21.8 28.3 46.4 127.022 <0.001
 Binge drinking (current) 11.3 3885 9.3 13.2 12.6 16.7 18.579 <0.001
 Cannabis use (lifetime) 19.5 3878 12.2 21.5 27.0 47.7 241.570 <0.001
 Heroin or crack cocaine use (lifetime) 2.2 3882 0.9 1.5 4.0 9.0 84.106 <0.001
Violence and criminal justice         
 Violence victimization (past year) 5.3 3883 2.4 4.2 10.7 16.1 137.578 <0.001
 Violence perpetration (past year) 4.4 3884 2.0 3.6 8.7 13.9 119.609 <0.001
 Incarceration (lifetime) 7.1 3879 3.1 8.1 10.2 24.5 182.58 <0.001
Diet, weight and exercise         
 Poor diet (current) 15.6 3879 13.3 15.9 18.3 25.1 31.679 <0.001
 Low physical exercise (current) 43.0 3881 44.1 41.4 41.2 42.7 1.434 0.231
  1. Abbreviations: ACE adverse childhood experience.