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Table 2 Hazard ratios of drug use for cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes after excluding prevalent users for the drug in question using a non-time-dependent Cox regression model, with adjustment for co-variables, propensity score and drug use during follow-up

From: Additive effects of blood glucose lowering drugs, statins and renin-angiotensin system blockers on all-site cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

Users versus non-users Sample size Number of events Hazard ratio (95% CI) P
ACEIs or ARBs     
 Model 1 4,307 199 0.38 (0.27, 0.53) <0.00001
 Model 2 4,307 199 0.60 (0.43, 0.84) 0.0027
 Model 3 4,307 199 0.55 (0.39, 0.78) 0.0009
Statins     
 Model 1 5,172 243 0.36 (0.24, 0.53) <0.0001
 Model 2 5,172 243 0.47 (0.32, 0.70) 0.0002
 Model 3 5,172 243 0.47 (0.31, 0.70) 0.0003
Insulin     
 Model 1 4,639 201 0.48 (0.31, 0.73) 0.0006
 Model 2 4,639 201 0.59 (0.39, 0.89) 0.0110
 Model 3 4,639 201 0.58 (0.38, 0.89) 0.0119
Metformin     
 Model 1 2,658 129 0.38 (0.25, 0.56) <0.0001
 Model 2 2,658 129 0.39 (0.25, 0.61) <0.0001
 Model 3 2,658 129 0.39 (0.25, 0.61) <0.0001
Sulphonylurea     
 Model 1 2,291 99 0.45 (0.29, 0.72) 0.0008
 Model 2 2,291 99 0.44 (0.27, 0.73) 0.0013
 Model 3 2,291 99 0.44 (0.27, 0.73) 0.0014
TZDs     
 Model 1 6,074 270 0.12 (0.03, 0.50) 0.0033
 Model 2 6,074 270 0.17 (0.04, 0.69) 0.0133
 Model 3 6,074 270 0.18 (0.04, 0.72) 0.0153
  1. Model 1 adjusted for propensity scores (c-statistics = 0.80 for ACEIs or ARBs; 0.80 for statins; 0.79 for insulin; 0.73 for metformin; 0.66 for sulphonylurea; and 0.74 for TZDs), which were calculated using logistic regression procedures with age, sex, body mass index, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride, use of tobacco and alcohol, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, natural log of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate, duration of disease, peripheral arterial disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, prior myocardial infarction and stroke as independent variables. Model 2 adjusted for LDL-C-related risk indicators (that is, LDL-C <2.8 mmol/L plus albuminuria or LDL-C ≥3.8 mmol/L); non-linear associations of HDL-C and triglyceride for cancer; body mass index (<24, ≥27.6 kg/m2); age; sex; employment status; use of tobacco and alcohol; duration of disease; systolic blood pressure; and use of statins, ACEIs/ARBs, fibrates, sulphonylurea, metformin and TZDs during follow-up. Model 3 adjusted for all factors in model 2 plus the propensity score of the drug in question. No patient had been exposed to the drug in question for at least 2.5 years prior to enrolment. ACEIs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers; CI, confidence interval; TZD, thiazolidinediones.