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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants according to energy-adjusted tertiles of total olive oil consumption

From: Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

Baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of total olive oil consumption  
Variable 1 (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (n = 2,405) P-value
Age (y) 67 ± 6 67 ± 6 67 ± 6 0.744
Men, % (n) 45.7 (1,099) 42.2 (1,016) 39.8 (956) <0.001
Intervention group, % (n)     0.476
MedDiet + EVOO 33.1 (796) 34.5 (830) 35.3 (848)  
MedDiet + Nuts 32.6 (785) 32.9 (792) 32.6 (783)  
Control low fat diet 34.3 (824) 32.6 (784) 32.2 (774)  
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 29.9 ± 3.73 29.9 ± 3.88 30.0 ± 3.93 0.427
Weight (kg) 77.0 ± 11.7 76.6 ± 12.0 76.6 ± 12.1 0.422
Leisure-time energy expenditure in physical activity (MET minutes/d) 243.1 ± 265.2 228.6 ± 225.5 221.3 ± 223.1 0.005
Smoking status, % (n)     0.262
Never 60.3 (1,450) 60.9 (1,466) 63.3 (1,523)  
Current 14.4 (347) 14.2 (341) 13.1 (316)  
Former 25.3 (608) 24.9 (599) 23.5 (566)  
Educational level, % (n)     0.040
Illiterate/primary education 79.3 (1,907) 77.6 (1,866) 76.1 (1,831)  
Secondary education 14.1 (338) 14.7 (354) 16.8 (404)  
Academic/graduate 6.7 (160) 7.7 (186) 7.1 (170)  
Prevalence of diabetes, % (n) 49.9 (1,200) 47.9 (1,153) 48.1 (1,156) 0.312
Prevalence of hypertension, % (n) 83.1 (1,998) 82.1 (1,976) 83.0 (1,995) 0.639
Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, % (n) 73.6 (1,769) 71.7 (1,726) 71.4 (1,716) 0.190
Family history of coronary heart disease, % (n) 22.3 (536) 22.1 (531) 22.6 (544) 0.899
Medication use, % (n)     
Oral antidiabetic drugs 33.6 (808) 31.4 (756) 31.6 (759) 0.195
Antihypertensive drugs 71.9 (1,728) 72.4 (1,743) 73.9 (1,777) 0.264
Statins 40.4 (972) 40.5 (974) 39.8 (958) 0.880
Modified MedDiet score (12-point score) 6.9 ± 1.7 7.0 ± 1.7 7.2 ± 1.7 <0.001
Total energy intake (kcal/d) 2,266 ± 479 2,242 ± 668 2,199 ± 457 <0.001
Total olive oil (g/d) 21.4 ± 8.00 38.8 ± 11.6 56.9 ± 10.8 <0.001
Extra virgin olive oil (g/d) 9.1 ± 11.2 19.5 ± 20.0 34.6 ± 27.4 <0.001
Common olive oil (g/d) 12.1 ± 11.7 18.6 ± 18.5 21.7 ± 25.9 <0.001
Alcohol (g/d) 8.51 ± 14.1 9.41 ± 15.5 7.06 ± 12.2 <0.001
Nuts (g/d) 11.3 ± 14.8 10.2 ± 14.2 8.7 ± 11.5 <0.001
Vegetables (g/d) 346 ± 156 328 ± 145 327 ± 137 <0.001
Fruit (g/d) 389 ± 219 363 ± 196 351 ± 184 <0.001
Red meat (beef, pork, lamb) (g/d) 79.6 ± 49.1 79.1 ± 46.1 70.4 ± 41.2 <0.001
White meat (chicken, rabbit, turkey) (g/d) 46.4 ± 28.2 45.9 ± 27.6 42.1 ± 27.1 <0.001
Eggs (g/d) 20.5 ± 10.2 20.1 ± 11.5 19.3 ± 11.5 <0.001
Fish (g/d) 95.7 ± 51.9 99.8 ± 52.0 102 ± 46.9 <0.001
Dairy (g/d) 407 ± 231 375 ± 220 357 ± 205 <0.001
  1. Data are expressed as means ± SD or percentage (n). P-value for comparisons across tertiles of baseline energy-adjusted olive oil consumption (Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables or 1-way analysis of variance for continuous variable) as appropriate. BMI, body mass index; EVOO, extra virgin olive oil; MedDiet, Mediterranean diet; MET, Metabolic Equivalent of Task.