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Table 3 Risk of cardiovascular events and mortality according to baseline extra-virgin olive oil intake

From: Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

  Energy-adjusted tertiles of extra-virgin olive oil, g/day   
  1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend Energy-adjusted extra virgin olive oil intake (10 g/d)
Mean extra-virgin olive oil intake 9.1 ± 11.23 19.5 ± 20.0 34.6 ± 27.4   
Major event      
Cardiovascular event, % (n) 4.6 (111) 4.2 (101) 2.7 (65)   3.8 (277)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 1.01 (0.77, 1.33) 0.60 (0.43, 0.82) < 0.01 0.89 (0.84, 0.95)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 1.00 (0.76, 1.32) 0.60 (0.44, 0.84) < 0.01 0.90 (0.85, 0.95)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.99 (0.75, 1.31) 0.61 (0.44, 0.85) < 0.01 0.90 (0.85, 0.95)
Cardiovascular mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
Cardiovascular mortality, % (n) 1.3 (32) 1.2 (28) 0.9 (21)   1.1 (81)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 1.01 (0.60, 1.70) 0.64 (0.36, 1.15) 0.10 0.93 (0.84, 1.03)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 0.99 (0.59, 1.67) 0.64 (0.36, 1.15) 0.10 0.93 (0.83, 1.03)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.97 (0.58, 1.64) 0.65 (0.36, 1.17) 0.13 0.93 (0.84, 1.03)
Cancer mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
Cancer mortality, % (n) 2.1 (50) 1.7 (41) 1.6 (39)   1.8 (130)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 0.90 (0.59, 1.37) 0.87 (0.56, 1.37) 0.61 0.96 (0.88, 1.04)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 0.88 (0.58, 1.35) 0.88 (0.56, 1.39) 0.68 0.96 (0.89, 1.05)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.89 (0.58, 1.35) 0.90 (0.57, 1.41) 0.73 0.97 (0.89, 1.05)
All-cause mortality 1 (low) (n = 2,405) 2 (n = 2,406) 3 (high) (n = 2,405) P for trend  
All causes of mortality, % (n) 5.2 (125) 4.2 (100) 4.1 (98)   4.5 (323)
Multivariable model 1 1 (Ref.) 0.88 (0.67, 1.15) 0.81 (0.61, 1.07) 0.19 0.95 (0.91, 1.00)
Multivariable model 2 1 (Ref.) 0.84 (0.64, 1.10) 0.80 (0.60, 1.07) 0.20 0.95 (0.90, 1.00)
Multivariable model 3 1 (Ref.) 0.84 (0.64, 1.10) 0.82 (0.61, 1.09) 0.25 0.96 (0.91, 1.01)
  1. Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality by baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of extra virgin olive oil (g/day) and as a continuous variable (10 g/d). Results were presented as Hazard Ratios (95% CI). Multivariable model 1 was adjusted for age (years), sex and the intervention group. Model 2 was also adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), smoking status (never, former, current smoker), alcohol intake (continuous, adding a quadratic term), educational level (illiterate/primary education, secondary education, academic/graduate), leisure time physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-minutes/d), prevalence of diabetes (yes/no), prevalence of hypertension (yes/no), prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), use of antihypertensive medication (yes/no) and use of statins (yes/no). Model 3 was also adjusted for Mediterranean diet adherence (Modified 12-point Mediterranean Diet score). All models were stratified by recruitment center. Extremes of total energy intake were excluded. A major event was a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke and death from cardiovascular causes.