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Table 2 Associations between the effect moderators and (i) fat in lumbar multifidus muscles and (ii) LBP variables expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (OR (95% CI)).

From: Are MRI-defined fat infiltrations in the multifidus muscles associated with low back pain?

  Adults Adolescents
Variables Fat LMM LBP year LBP ever Fat LMM LBP month LBP year
Sex 3.7 (2.1–6.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 1.1 (0.6–1.7) 3.7 (1.9–7.1) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 1.6 (1.1–2.4)
Body weight 0.9 (0.6–1.2) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.3 (0.9–2.0) 0.6 (0.3–1.4) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 1.4 (0.9–2.2)
Workload 0.9 (0.7–1.1) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) -- -- --
Physical activity 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) -- -- --
Weekly hours of sports activity 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.0 (1.0–1.1)
Daily bicycling -- -- -- 0.6 (0.3–1.3) 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 1.5 (0.9–2.6)
  1. Data are expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals).
  2. The estimates denote the OR for each step in those categorical variables that take >2 values.
  3. Fat LMM, fat in lumbar multifidus muscles; LBP, lower back pain; LBP ever, had ever experienced lower back pain; LBP month, had experienced back pain in previous month; LBP year, had experienced back pain in previous year.