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Table 4 Construct validity for excellence and measurement validity of discussed ranking systems

From: International ranking systems for universities and institutions: a critical appraisal

  Construct validity for excellence Measurement validity
  Research Education  
Shanghai    
Alumni, Nobel/Fields - - ++
Faculty, Nobel/Fields +++ + ++
Faculty, highly-cited ++ + +
Nature/Science articles ++ - +++
Number of articles - - +
Size - - -
Times    
Peer opinion +++ +++ -
Graduate recruiter opinion - + -
International faculty + + ?
International students - + ?
Student-faculty ratio - + ?
Citations per faculty ++ - +
Other rankings    
Web presence + + +
Funding + - +
  1. -, Poor; +, low/modest; ++, good; +++, very good; ?, unknown (insufficient detail provided on the reliability of databases).