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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria among patients with PFPS

From: Knee arthroscopy and exercise versus exercise only for chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

The first stage (evaluation in the ORTON Orthopaedic Hospital or in the outpatient clinics of the public hospitals in the Helsinki area)
Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Age 18 – 40 years Disabling general illness
Female or male Reported knee ligamentous or meniscal injuries
Characteristic history of PFPS and symptoms lasting at least 6 months Previous knee surgery
Patellofemoral pain during knee loading physical activity, such as jumping, running, squatting, or going up or down stairs Physician diagnosed knee osteoarthritis
Patellofemoral pain when the knee was kept in flexion for a prolonged period, with relief on extension A history of patellar dislocation; however, subjects with patellar subluxation are included in the study
  Other knee problems than PFPS diagnosed clinically (such as jumper's knee)
  Other knee problems than PFPS diagnosed radiographically (such as osteochondritis dissecans)
  Physical therapy for PFPS within the previous 4 weeks
  Pregnancy
  Competitive athlete
The second stage (orthopedic surgeon's clinical and radiological evaluation in ORTON)
Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
As in stage one Clear medio-lateral instability in manual instability measurement
  Knee problems other than PFPS
  Knee osteoarthritis
  Osteochondritis dissecans, loose bodies in the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints