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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria among patients with PFPS

From: Knee arthroscopy and exercise versus exercise only for chronic patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

The first stage (evaluation in the ORTON Orthopaedic Hospital or in the outpatient clinics of the public hospitals in the Helsinki area)

Inclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria

Age 18 – 40 years

Disabling general illness

Female or male

Reported knee ligamentous or meniscal injuries

Characteristic history of PFPS and symptoms lasting at least 6 months

Previous knee surgery

Patellofemoral pain during knee loading physical activity, such as jumping, running, squatting, or going up or down stairs

Physician diagnosed knee osteoarthritis

Patellofemoral pain when the knee was kept in flexion for a prolonged period, with relief on extension

A history of patellar dislocation; however, subjects with patellar subluxation are included in the study


Other knee problems than PFPS diagnosed clinically (such as jumper's knee)


Other knee problems than PFPS diagnosed radiographically (such as osteochondritis dissecans)


Physical therapy for PFPS within the previous 4 weeks




Competitive athlete

The second stage (orthopedic surgeon's clinical and radiological evaluation in ORTON)

Inclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria

As in stage one

Clear medio-lateral instability in manual instability measurement


Knee problems other than PFPS


Knee osteoarthritis


Osteochondritis dissecans, loose bodies in the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints