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Table 4 Women's report of change in practice before and after the intervention in intervention and control hospitals

From: Promoting childbirth companions in South Africa: a randomised pilot study

Category Outcomes Group Before intervention After intervention Change: paired comparison*
Primary outcome Companion allowed EXPT 9 (5 to 45) 21 (0 to 40)  
   CONTROL 2 (1 to 60) 15 (0 to 48) NS
Other beneficial policies Moving around in 1st stage EXPT 56 (51 to 66) 64 (55 to 86)  
   CONTROL 51 (40 to 61) 54 (51 to 64) NS
  Moving around allowed in 2nd stage EXPT 2 (1 to 9) 1 (0 to 4)  
   CONTROL 2 (0 to 3) 32 (1 to 39) P = 0.003
Painful obstetric policies Episiotomy EXPT 34 (25 to 48) 21 (10 to 28)  
   CONTROL 40 (21 to 44) 39 (24 to 48) P = 0.02
Benefit doubtful Enema given EXPT 56 (33 to 63) 52 (35 to 68)  
   CONTROL 66 (18 to 69) 41 (19 to 72)  
Humane care Offered food EXPT 25 (2 to 37) 19 (0 to 46)  
   CONTROL 26 (4 to 34) 23 (13 to 40) NS
  Offered fluid EXPT 18 (3 to 29) 14 (11 to 28)  
   CONTROL 10 (0 to 31) 16 (13 to 25) NS
Inhumane care Shouted at EXPT 14 (6 to 25) 15 (10 to 22)  
   CONTROL 21 (12 to 25) 26 (12 to 29) NS
  Slapped or struck EXPT 2 (2 to 8) 1 (0.5 to 4)  
   CONTROL 3 (2 to 12) 4 (0.5 to 7)  
  Left alone EXPT 12 (7 to 21) 16 (4 to 32)  
   CONTROL 14 (11 to 29) 21 (10 to 33) NS
  1. * Mann-Whitney U test.
  2. NS: No statistically significant difference.