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Table 16 Lung cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any Overall data 9 (2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 19, 20, 21, 24) 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 53.2 85.0 < 0.001
  Smoking-adjusted 6 (2, 3, 6, 11, 13, 20) 0.99 (0.71–1.37)d 28.7 82.6 < 0.001
  Never smokers 5 (2, 3, 6, 12, 16) 1.34 (0.80–2.23) 11.5 65.3 0.021
Any (USA) Overall data 6 (2, 3, 6, 20, 21, 24) 1.22 (0.82–1.83) 18.5 73.0 0.002
  Smoking-adjusted 4 (2, 3, 6, 20) 1.38 (0.72–2.64) 16.5 81.9 0.001
  Never smokers 3 (2, 3, 6) 1.79 (0.91–3.51) 6.2 67.8 0.045
Snuff (Scandinavia) Overall data 2 (11, 13) 0.71 (0.66–0.76) 0.9 0.0 0.354
  Smoking-adjusted 2 (11, 13) 0.71 (0.66–0.76) 0.9 0.0 0.354
  Never smokers 2 (12, 16) 0.82 (0.52–1.28) 0.1 0.0 0.798
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 15 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 15.
  4. d Test for publication bias 0.05 ≤ P < 0.1.
  5. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.