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Table 17 Prostate cancer; individual effect (relative risk/odds ratio) estimates

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  ST use   RR/OR
Sourcea Typeb Exposurec Smoking Id. Casesd Estimate (95%CI) Adjustment factorse
Cohort studies        
Lutheran Brotherhood: Hsing et al. 1990 [11] ST Ever Any 1 38 1.51 (1.03–2.19)f age, smok
    Never 2 10 4.50 (2.10–9.70) age
US Veterans: Hsing et al. 1991 [15] ST Ever Never 3 48 1.17 (0.88–1.56) age
Iowa cohort: Putnam et al. 2000 [20] ST Ever Any 4 NA no association age
NHANES I: Accortt et al. 2005 [22] ST Ever Never 5 19 1.20 (0.50–3.40) age, pov, race
Norway cohorts: IARC Monograph 37 1985 [14] ST Use Any 6 NA no association age, res, smok
Case-control studies        
Williams and Horm 1977 [55] ST Ever Any 7 65 1.32 (0.94–1.84)f age, race, smok
Hayes et al. 1994 [96] Chew Current Any 8 14 0.56 (0.30–1.06)f none
   Former   9 56 1.08 (0.75–1.55)f  
   Ever   10 70 0.91 (0.67–1.25)f  
  Snuff Current Any 11 10 6.74 (1.47–30.84)f  
   Former   12 10 0.79 (0.36–1.74)f  
   Ever   13 20 1.42 (0.75–2.67)f  
  ST Current Any 14 24 0.92 (0.54–1.58)g  
   Former   15 66 1.03 (0.74–1.43)g  
   Ever   16 90 1.00 (0.75–1.33)g  
  1. a Fuller details of the studies are given in Tables 1 and 2.
  2. b ST implies smokeless tobacco unspecified, or combined snuff use or chewing.
  3. c Ever, former and current ST use were compared with never ST. Use indicates timing not given and comparison is with non use.
  4. d 'Id.' is the RR/OR identification number used in Table 18, and 'Cases' is the number of cases in ST users as defined. NA = not available.
  5. e Abbreviations used: pov = poverty, res = area of residence, smok = smoking.
  6. f RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source.
  7. g RR/OR and/or 95% CI estimated from data provided in the source assuming that no one both chewed and used snuff.
  8. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.