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Table 18 Prostate cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Anyd Overall data 5 (1, 3, 5, 7, 16) 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 3.3 0.0 0.506
  Smoking-adjusted 4 (1, 3, 5, 7) 1.29 (1.07–1.55) 1.2 0.0 0.764
  Never smokers 3 (2, 3, 5) 1.81 (0.76–4.30) 10.5 81.0 0.005
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 17 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 17.
  4. d All the available data for prostate cancer are from US studies.
  5. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.