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Table 22 Kidney cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any Overall data 11 (3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19) 1.23 (0.86–1.76)d 16.5 39.2 0.087
  Smoking-adjusted 5 (3, 5, 13, 17, 19) 1.09 (0.69–1.71)e 6.9 41.9 0.142
  Never smokers 2 (5, 17) 2.19 (0.63–7.70) 2.5 59.6 0.116
Any (USA) Overall data 8 (4, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19) 1.52 (0.94–2.46) 11.1 37.1 0.133
  Smoking-adjusted 3 (5, 13, 19) 1.41 (0.64–3.10) 4.2 51.8 0.125
  Never smokers 1 (5) 4.80 (1.18–19.56) -- -- --
Snuff (Scandinavia)f Overall data 1 (3) 0.72 (0.44–1.18) -- -- --
  Smoking-adjusted 1 (3) 0.72 (0.44–1.18) -- -- --
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 21 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 21.
  4. d Test for publication bias 0.05 ≤ P < 0.1.
  5. e Test for publication bias 0.01 ≤ P < 0.05.
  6. f There are no available data for never smokers using snuff in Scandinavia.
  7. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.