Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 33 Comparison of effects of smoking and smokeless tobacco on smoking-related cancera in US males aged 35+

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

  Oropharynx Oesophagus Pancreas Larynx Lung Bladder Kidney Total
Number of deaths (Di)b 5,224 10,578 16,105 2,980 90,096 9,181 8,041 142,205
Relative risksc         
   Current cigarette smoking (Rci) 27.48 7.60 2.14 10.48 22.36 2.86 2.95  
   Former cigarette smoking (Rfi) 8.80 5.83 1.12 5.24 9.36 1.90 1.95  
Deaths if all the population were never smokers (Di*)d 567 2,681 12,524 679 10,901 5,445 4,671 37,468
Deaths eliminated if all the population were never smokers (E)e         104,737
Relative risksf         
   - any ST use (Rsi) 1.36 1.13 1.07 1.34 1.00g 1.00h 1.09  
Deaths in a population of never smokersi         
   Same % become ST users as were smokers (Di**) 676 2,866 12,988 801 10,901 5,445 4,894 38,570
   100% of population become ST users (Di***) 772 3,029 13,400 910 10,901 5,445 5,091 39,548
Increase in deaths in a population of never smokersj         
   Same % become ST users as were smokers (I1)         1,102
   100% of population become ST users (I2)         2,081
  1. a ICD 10th revision codes [127] used are oropharynx (C00–C14), oesophagus (C15), pancreas (C25), larynx (C32), lung (C33, C34), bladder (C67) and kidney (C64–C66, C68).
  2. b Numbers of deaths in 2005 from WHO [123]. Here and for other results, the entries in brackets correspond to the notation used in the methods section.
  3. c Relative risks from US Surgeon General's Report 1989 [122] Table 6 p 150, derived from CPS-II.
  4. d Di* is calculated as shown in the methods section, assuming 21.8% of current smokers and 31.2% of former smokers, based on the National Health Interview Survey 2005 [124].
  5. e E = Σ (Di - Di*).
  6. f Relative risks for any ST use, based on smoking-adjusted data, as given in Tables 4, 6, 8, 10, 16, 20 and 22 for the seven cancers shown.
  7. g Actually 0.99, but taken as 1.00 for the purposes of estimation.
  8. h Actually 0.95, but taken as 1.00 for the purposes of estimation.
  9. i Di** and Di*** are calculated as shown in the methods section, assuming that 53.0% or 100.0% respectively of the population use ST.
  10. j I1 = Σ (Di** - Di*), I2 = Σ (Di*** - Di*)