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Table 8 Stomach cancer; meta-analysis results

From: Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

     Heterogeneity
Type of ST (region)a Adjustments/restrictionsb Number of estimates (RR/OR ids)c Random-effects RR/OR (95% CI) χ2 I2 P2)
Any Overall data 9 (1, 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21) 1.03 (0.90–1.19) 10.5 24.0 0.230
  Smoking-adjusted 8 (1, 6, 9, 10, 14, 17, 19, 21) 1.03 (0.88–1.20) 10.3 31.9 0.173
  Never smokers 4 (2, 6, 11, 20) 1.27 (0.75–2.13) 7.0 57.2 0.072
Any (USA) Overall data 4 (1, 6, 14, 15) 1.41 (0.95–2.10) 0.1 0.0 0.988
  Smoking-adjusted 3 (1, 6, 14) 1.41 (0.93–2.12) 0.1 0.0 0.942
  Never smokers 2 (2, 6) 1.96 (0.82–4.70) 1.6 38.2 0.203
Snuff (Scandinavia) Overall data 5 (9, 10, 17, 19, 21) 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 8.1 50.4 0.089
  Smoking-adjusted 5 (9, 10, 17, 19, 21) 0.98 (0.82–1.17) 8.1 50.4 0.089
  Never smokers 2 (11, 20) 0.90 (0.35–2.30) 4.2 76.4 0.040
  1. a For each study/sex, the RR/OR for ST from Table 7 was included if available, otherwise that for chewing tobacco or snuff was used.
  2. b Smoking-adjusted includes estimates for smokers and non-smokers combined, adjusted for smoking if available, and estimates for never smokers otherwise.
  3. c The actual estimates included are identified by their RR/OR identification numbers as given in Table 7.
  4. CI = confidence interval; ST = smokeless tobacco; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk.