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Table 3 Oral and parenteral neuroprotective and neurorestorative agents for primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and secondary progressive MS.

From: Recent developments in multiple sclerosis therapeutics

Strategy Drug class Agents *
Protection of oligodendrocytes/axons from oxidative injury Antioxidants Lipoic acid
Protection of demyelinated axons from injury Glutamate receptor antagonists  
  NMDA: Riluzole
  AMPA/Kainate: NBQX
  Sodium channel
Promotion of remyelination Stem cells Embryonic, autologous
  LINGO-1 Anti-LINGO-1 antibodies
  Pregnancy hormones Estriol
Neurotrophic factors to help restore neuronal function Neurotrophic factors  
  Glial-derived: GDNF, IGF, CNTF, neurturin, artemin, persephin
  AMPA/Kainate: NGF, BDNF, NT3/4
  1. *oral agents are indicated in italics
  2. AMPA, α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; CNTF, ciliary neurotrophic factor; GDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; GYKI-52466, a 2, 3-benzodiazepine; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; LINGO-1, leucine rich repeat and Ig domain-containing, Nogo Receptor-interacting protein 1; NBXX, 2, 3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid; NGF, nerve growth factor; NT3/4, neurotrophin 3 and 4.