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Table 1 Characteristics of the defined hospital catchment areas communities for 17 hospitals

From: Malaria paediatric hospitalization between 1999 and 2008 across Kenya

Hospital location Total Population 1999 in catchment
[Surface area Km2 ]
Projected population <15 years in 2004
(Mid-point of surveillance)
[inter-censal growth rate]
% p.a.
% of Population residing in Areas ≥ 1500 m above sea level2 % of Population residing in Areas with
EVI <0.33
Average annual rainfall 1999-2008 (mm)4 % population living in areas with modelled PfPR2-10 <5% in 2009 % Population living in areas with modelled PfPR2-10 5-39% in 2009 % Population living in areas with modelled
PfPR2-10 ≥ 40% in 2009
Western/Lakeside         
Busia 369,552
[9.3]
204,650
[3.4]
0.0 0.0 1,584 0.0 0.0 100.0
Bungoma 569,953
[12.5]
339,862
[4.3]
24.4 0.0 1,431 0.0 53.5 46.5
Bondo 153,864
[6.0]
75,862
[1.8]
0.0 1.27 1,4125 0.0 44.7 55.2
Homa Bay 253,496
[8.5]
130,559
[2.7]
0.9 11.0 1,4125 0.0 77.5 22.5
Kisumu 541,002
[8.4]
251,398
[2.0]
13.0 15.8 1,4125 0.0 89.6 10.4
Siaya 243,149
[7.0]
112,039
[0.9]
0.0 0.7 1,4125 0.0 1.3 98.7
Highlands         
Kericho 406,491
[15.6]
198,951
[2.4]
55.2 0.00 2,121 84.9 15.3 0.0
Kisii 405,331
[4.7]
197,580
[2.0]
88.5 0.00 2,119 10.3 89.7 0.0
Kitale 765,943
[26.9]
435,428
[3.8]
84.1 2.8 1,264 69.8 30.2 0.0
Coastal         
Kilifi 338,112
[17.6]
183,651
[3.1]
0.0 5.3 1,3496 28.8 71.2 0.0
Malindi 201,049
[12.7]
114,865
[3.4]
0.0 18.8 1,077 61.7 38.3 0.0
Msambweni 241,647
[14.5]
101,802
[2.6]
0.0 1.15 887
(5)
0.0 93.3 6.8
Arid & semi-arid         
Narok 167,519
[35.0]
96,886
[3.3]
44.7 33.9 7227 100.0 0.0 0.0
Hola 52,622
[31.3]
29,264
[3.4]
0.0 73.2 492 6.0 94.0 0.0
Voi 159,230
[14.3]
69,613
[1.7]
21.9 34.4 4917 94.8 5.2 0.0
Makueni 293,997
[20.4]
159,381
[2.8]
15.2 48.3 540 100.0 0.0 0.0
Wajir 287,617
[446.8]1
224,625
[9.6]
0.0 100.0 312 100.0 0.0 0.0
  1. 1. Wajir is a district that is populated by pastoralists with very little access to health services and scattered across a wide spatial area. The predicted catchment area therefore was considerably larger than all other more densely populated settled communities in other districts.
  2. 2. A digital elevation map (DEM) for Kenya was used that has a resolution of 30 meters http://www.vterrain.org/Elevation/SRTM/
  3. 3. EVI - Enhanced vegetation index - threshold values were computed to define malaria-relevant EVI categories that corresponded to accepted definitions of aridity based on annual rainfall [53]. In Kenya this approximated to an EVI threshold of 0.3 below which average annual rainfall was less than 1000 mm corresponding to historical descriptions of malaria in Kenya referred to as 'only malarious near water' [27].
  4. 4. Trend analysis of rainfall showed a relatively stable pattern across most of the sites without significant rises or declines in monthly precipitation over the 10 years of observation. Exceptions were at Msambweni where a significant, but small downward trend was observed (trend 0.44; P value for t statistic = 0.018,) and at Hola and Busia significant increased precipitation was observed over the 10 years; trend = 0.27 (P = 0.042) and trend = 0.79 (P = 0.002) respectively.
  5. 5. A single meteorological station was used for all the four hospitals immediately surrounding Lake Victoria, based at Kisumu, this met station had complete records for the period of observation and there were no other met stations located close to the catchments of the other three hospital sites. This station is however located close, between 39 and 54 km, to the other three catchment areas.
  6. 6. Rainfall data from the Kilifi Met station were missing for the period June 2008 to December 2008 and were supplemented for this period with data from Malindi met station located 24 km from the Kilifi catchment area.
  7. 7. A total of 13 (0.6%) of 2,040 monthly rainfall observations were not recorded. An average of neighbouring non-missing values was used to estimate single months of missing rainfall data in two sites (Voi and Narok).