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Table 3 Plasma carotenoids (nmol/L) and biomarkers of carotenoid-rich dietary items

From: Blood cell gene expression associated with cellular stress defense is modulated by antioxidant-rich food in a randomised controlled clinical trial of male smokers

  Control group (n = 10) Antioxidant-rich diet group (n = 10) Kiwifruit group (n = 9)  
  Baseline Change Baseline Change Baseline Change P a
Lutein 0.13 (0.08-0.18) 0.00 (-0.03-0.04) 0.14 (0.11-0.20) 0.05 (0.00-0.12) 0.14 (0.08-0.22) 0.05 (-0.02-0.07) 0.07b
Zeaxanthin 0.03 (0.02-0.04) 0.00 (-0.01-0.01) 0.04 (0.02-0.06) -0.01 (-0.03-0.00) 0.03 (0.02-0.05) 0.00 (-0.01-0.01) 0.03c
β-cryptoxanthin 0.07 (0.03-0.16) 0.00 (-0.03-0.01) 0.12 (0.06-0.23) -0.05 (-0.13-0.01) 0.08 (0.06-0.12) -0.03 (-0.04-0.00) 0.10
α-carotene 0.06 (0.03-0.09) -0.01 (-0.04-0.00) 0.03 (0.02-0.11) 0.07 (0.00-0.18) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) -0.01 (-0.02-0.04) 0.01c
β-carotene 0.26 (0.22-0.38) -0.04 (-0.26-0.05) 0.16 (0.11-0.66) 0.08 (-0.01-0.17) 0.36 (0.13-0.52) -0.05 (-0.11-0.07) 0.02c
Lycopene 0.50 (0.20-0.71) -0.01 (-0.12-0.34) 0.58 (0.30-0.88) -0.10 (-0.41-0.14) 0.57 (0.41-0.68) 0.04 (-0.04-0.30) 0.11
  1. Group median with 95% confidence interval.
  2. aKruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the changes between the groups. A Mann-Whitney test was used as post hoc test.
  3. bChange during intervention is significantly different between the kiwifruit group and controls.
  4. cSignificant difference between the antioxidant-rich diet group and controls. Baseline values were not significantly different between the groups (P values not shown).