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Table 6 Motor impairment - muscle function

From: The effects of increased dose of exercise-based therapies to enhance motor recovery after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Time-point Study Measure used Augmented therapy Standard therapy Mean difference
    Number subjects Mean (SD) Number subjects Mean (SD) Effect size [95% CI]
Outcome         
   4 weeks after start therapy GAPS Motricity arm + leg 33 119.0 (46.0) 34 111.0 (45.0) 8.0 [-13.8,29.8]
   20 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Motricity leg 26 68.2 (25.8) 34 45.2 (24.8) 23.0 [10.0,35.9]
   20 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Motricity arm 29 53.1 (32.0) 34 28.9 (28.5) 24.2 [9.2,33.1]
   6 weeks after start therapy Donaldson Hand grip force 10 71.9 (49.5) 8 64.8 (39.3) 7.1 [-34.0,48.1]
   5 weeks after start therapy Lincoln Hand grip strength 87 0 (25.19) 90 11.0 (36.3) -11.0 [-20.2,-1.8]
  Subtotal - hand grip force/strength 97   98   -10.1 [-19.1,-1.2]
   6 weeks after start therapy Donaldson Pinch grip force 10 31.5 (23.1) 8 24.5 (19.7) 7.0 [-12.8,26.8]
   6 weeks after start therapy Donaldson Elbow extend force 10 64.5 (44.6) 8 68.6 (39.6) -4.1 [-43.1,34.8]
   6 weeks after start therapy Donaldson Elbow flexion force 10 76.1 (58.7) 8 75.0 (38.7) 1.1 [-44.1,46.3]
   6 weeks after start therapy Cooke Knee extend torque 26 45.3 (33.2) 25 27.8 (26.3) 17.5 a [1.1, 33.9]
   6 weeks after start therapy Cooke Knee flexion torque 26 34.0 (23.1) 25 19.0 (17.8) 15.0 a [3.7, 26.3]
Follow-up 1         
   3 months after start therapy GAPS Motricity arm + leg 32 130.0 (44.0) 33 120.0 (42.0) 10.0 [-10.9,30.9]
   26 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Motricity leg 26 68.2 (25.3) 34 27.2 (26.8) 41.0 [27.7,54.3]
   26 weeks after start therapy Kwakkel Motricity arm 29 48.6 (31.1) 34 31.1 (30.1) 17.5 [2.3,32.7]
   3 months after stroke Rodgers Motricity arm 54 85.0 (20.0) 51 78.0 (36.3) 7.0 [-4.3,18.3]
  Subtotal - Motricity arm 83   85   10.7 [1.7,19.8]
   18 weeks after start therapy Cooke Knee extend torque 19 56.4 (36.3) 18 37.9 (27.8) 18.5a [-2.3, 39.3]
   18 weeks after start therapy Cooke Knee flexion torque 19 41.7 (28.8) 18 25.2 (22.9) 16.5a [-0.2, 33.2]
   3 months after start therapy Lincoln Hand grip strength 84 9.0 (28.2) 84 19.0 (43.0) -10.0 [-19.5,1.8]
Follow-up 2         
   6 months after start therapy Lincoln Hand grip strength 81 23.0 (40.7) 81 25.0 (45.2) -2.0 [-15.3,11.3]
   6 months after stroke Rodgers Motricity arm 48 83.0 (28.2) 48 77.0 (25.9) 6.0 [-4.8,16.8]
   6 months after start therapy GAPS Motricity arm + leg 30 124.0 (42.0) 34 121.0 (51.0) 3.0 [-19.8,25.8]
  1. a = fixed effect model used; b = random effect model used; FU = Follow-up; * = < 0.05