Expression of VHL-regulated miRNAs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cc RCC) tissue compared to normal adjacent tissue. Measurements of miRNA expression were determined by qPCR and normalised to an average of RNU43 and RNU48 expression. qPCR for each sample was performed in triplicate. (a) miR-210, miR-155 and miR-21 were all highly upregulated in tumour tissue compared to normal kidney tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). (b) Expression of three members of the miR-17-92 cluster: miR-17, miR-18a and miR20a were examined, and miR-18a was found to be significantly upregulated in tumour tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). (c) No significant difference in expression was observed for miR-193b and miR-31; however, let-7i displayed significant upregulation in tumour tissue (P ≤ 0.043). #P ≤ 0.0001; ##P ≤ 0.05;°outlier (values between 1.5 and 3 interquartile ranges (IQRs) from the end of box); *extreme outlier (values more than 3 IQRs from the end of box).