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Table 2 Selected maternal characteristics and mode of delivery (%)

From: Caesarean section without medical indications is associated with an increased risk of adverse short-term maternal outcomes: the 2004-2008 WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

  Vaginal delivery Caesarean section without indications Caesarean section with indications Total
  Spontaneous Operative Antepartum Intrapartum Antepartum Intrapartum  
  N = 205,551 N = 7,296 N = 1,735 N = 950 N = 27,011 N = 44,022 N = 286,565
Marital status (single) 13.5 9.3 2.7 6.0 11.8 10.7 12.7
Maternal age        
≤16 years 2.5 2 0.1 1.9 1.4 2.4 2.3
16 to 35 87.8 85.7 89.4 85.9 80.1 86 86.8
≥35 9.7 12.3 10.6 12.3 18.5 11.6 10.9
Years of education        
<7 30.9 28.4 11.4 20.5 18.4 24.7 28.6
7 to 12 57.1 54.9 59.0 56.1 59.4 57.6 57.4
>12 12 16.7 29.7 23.4 22.2 17.7 14.1
Primiparous 41.2 57.3 73.3 58.8 37.6 49.7 42.8
Previous pregnancy        
Low birth weight 10.0 14.1 3.1 5.4 14.9 10.1 10.5
Fetal or neonatal death 2.0 2.4 1.6 3.6 2.6 2.6 2.1
Caesarean delivery in the last pregnancy 2 5.9 6.7 11.9 39.3 23.5 9
Current pregnancy        
Induced labour 9.9 15.4 0.0 13.9 0.0 13.9 9.7
Prelabour rupture of membranes 9.4 13.2 8.4 16.0 8.7 15.3 10.3
Pregnancy induced hypertension 2.8 5.3 2.9 3.2 8.5 5.5 3.8
Pre-eclampsia 1.6 3.2 1.3 1.3 8.9 4.8 2.8
Eclampsia 0.2 0.8 0.1 0.3 1 0.6 0.4
Chronic hypertension 0.6 1 0.2 0.2 2.4 1.2 0.8
Vaginal bleeding in second half of pregnancy 0.9 1.2 0.6 0.9 3.6 2 1.3
Suspected fetal growth impairment 0.8 1 0.3 0.7 2.5 1 1
Breech or other non-cephalic presentation 1 25.1 0 0 14.7 12.6 4.7
Referred for complication related to pregnancy 18.8 23.9 9.1 14.2 34 28.8 21.8
HIV 0.8 0.5 0.5 1.4 1 0.9 0.8
Cardiac/Renal diseases 0.3 1 0.5 0.5 1.1 0.5 0.5
Chronic respiratory conditions 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.2 1 0.6 0.6
Diabetes mellitus 0.4 0.7 1.5 0.3 2.6 1 0.7
Malaria 3.3 2.7 0.2 1.3 0.4 1.1 2.6
Sickle cell anaemia 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3
Severe anaemia 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.6
Pyelonephritis or urinary infection 5.9 4.4 0.6 5.4 8.4 8.6 6.5
Other medical conditions 5.3 5.3 10.2 5.7 12.6 8.2 6.5