Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Perinatal outcomes among singleton and first child of multiple births by mode of delivery

From: Caesarean section without medical indications is associated with an increased risk of adverse short-term maternal outcomes: the 2004-2008 WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

Perinatal outcomes n/N (%) Adjusted OR [95%CI]
Perinatal mortality   
   Spontaneous (reference) 3218/205551(1.57) 1
   Operative 415/7296(5.69) 3.16 (2.76 to 3.61)
   Antepartum without indications 6/1735(0.35) 0.72 (0.26 to 1.97)
   Intrapartum without indications 16/950(1.68) 2.41 (1.39 to 4.2)
   Antepartum with indications 534/27011(1.98) 1.3 (1.15 to 1.47)
   Intrapartum with indications 1081/44022(2.46) 2.01 (1.84 to 2.19)
Fetal death ††   
   Spontaneous (reference) 1981/205551 (0.96) 1
   Operative 291/7296 (3.99) 3.25 (2.79 to 3.79)
   Antepartum without indications 3/1735(0.17) 0.48 (0.12 to 1.98)
   Intrapartum without indications 11/950(1.16) 2.3 (1.2 to 4.4)
   Antepartum with indications 248/27011 (0.92) 0.92 (0.78 to 1.09)
   Intrapartum with indications 577/44022 (1.31) 1.6 (1.43 to 1.79)
Early neonatal deaths up to hospital discharge   
   Spontaneous (reference) 1237/203570 (0.61) 1
   Operative 124/7005 (1.82) 2.76 (2.19 to 3.47)
   Antepartum without indications 3/1732(0.17) 0.88 (0.21 to 3.62)
   Intrapartum without indications 5/939(0.53) 2.01 (0.8 to 5.06)
   Antepartum with indications 286/26477(1.08) 1.68 (1.42 to 1.98)
   Intrapartum with indications 504/43445(1.16) 2.2 (1.94 to 2.5)
Stay for ≥7 days in neonatal intensive care unit‡‡   
   Spontaneous (reference) 2704/205551(1.32) 1
   Operative 203/7296(2.78) 1.57 (1.31 to 1.88)
   Antepartum without indications 17/1735(0.98) 1.18 (0.7 to 1.99)
   Intrapartum without indications 16/950(1.68) 2.09 (1.21 to 3.6)
   Antepartum with indications 1466/27011(5.43) 2.63 (2.4 to 2.89)
   Intrapartum with indications 1625/44022(3.69) 2.77 (2.55 to 3)
Severe perinatal outcome‡‡‡   
   Spontaneous (reference) 5820/205551 (2.83) 1
   Operative 613/7296 (8.4) 2.33 (2.07 to 2.62)
   Antepartum without indications 22/1735(1.27) 1 (0.61 to 1.62)
   Intrapartum without indications 32/950(3.37) 2.48 (1.66 to 3.69)
   Antepartum with indications 1968/27011(7.29) 2.05 (1.9 to 2.22)
   Intrapartum with indications 2656/44022(6.03) 2.42 (2.27 to 2.58)
  1. † Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Any antenatal antibiotic treatment, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension), country and gestational age
  2. †† Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension) and gestational age
  3. ‡ Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, country and gestational age
  4. ‡‡ Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, Primigravida, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Caesarean section at last pregnancy, Prelabour rupture of membranes, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Suspected fetal growth impairment, Any antenatal antibiotic treatment, Breech or other non-cephalic presentation, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension), country, complexity of index and gestational age
  5. ‡‡‡ Maternal age, Total number of years attended school, birth weight, Neonatal death or stillbirth, Caesarean section at last pregnancy, Prelabour rupture of membranes, Pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia or eclampsia or chronic hypertension, Suspected fetal growth impairment, Vaginal bleeding in 2nd half of pregnancy, Breech or other non-cephalic presentation, Referred for complication related to pregnancy or delivery, Induced labour, Any other medical complication during pregnancy (excluding chronic hypertension), country, complexity of index and gestational age