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Table 1 Targets for new therapies in systemic lupus erythematosusa

From: Advances in drug therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

Mechanism of action Examples of targets
T cells CTLA4-Ig, modified CD40L, inhibition of ICOS
  Regulatory T cells: expanding CD4+CD25+, CD8+CD28-
B cells mAbs to CD20, CD22, BlyS, TACi-Ig, BAFF-RFc
  Proteosome/plasma cells
Cytokines Inhibition of IL-6, IL-10; TNF inhibitors
Innate immune system Inhibition of IFN-α and IFN-γ, blockade of TLR-7 and/or TLR-9, C5a inhibition
Toleragens Peptides derived from nucleosomes, splicosomes
Cell surface receptor activation inhibition Syk kinase, sirolimus
  1. aICOS, ; mAbs, monoclonal antibodies; BlyS, B lymphocyte stimulation; TACi-Ig, immunoglobulin; BAFF-RFc, ; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IFN, interferon; TLR, Toll-like receptor.