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Table 3 Models for predicting risk of other diabetes outcomesa

From: Developing risk prediction models for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of methodology and reporting

Study Year Country Model objective (undiagnosed or incident diabetes) Definition of diabetes as reported Risk predictors in the model
Bindraban et al. [54] 2008 The Netherlands Diagnosed and undiagnosed FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L and/or self-report Age, BMI, waist circumference, resting heart rate, first-degree relative with diabetes, hypertension, history of CVD, ethnicity
Cabrera de León et al. [24] 2008 Canary Islands Unclear Persons recorded as having diabetes if they said they had the disease and reported dietary or pharmacological treatment with oral antidiabetics or insulin. Persons were considered to have undetected type 2 diabetes if they were unaware of disease at time of inclusion in study but had two consecutive FPG values ≥ 7 mmol/L (≥ 126 mg/dL). Men: age, waist/height ratio, family history of diabetes
Women: age, waist/height ratio, family history of diabetes, gestational diabetes
Gray et al. [58] 2010 UK Undiagnosed and impaired glucose regulation Participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes according to WHO criteria [1] with FPG ≥ 7 mmol/L and/or 2-h PG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. IFG defined as FPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/L inclusive. Age, ethnicity, sex, first-degree family history of diabetes, antihypertensive therapy or history of hypertension, waist circumference, BMI
Griffin et al. [55] 2000 UK Diagnosed and undiagnosed Classified according to WHO criteria Sex, prescribed antihypertensive medication, prescribed steroids, age, BMI, family history of diabetes, smoking status
Heikes et al. [56] 2008 USA Undiagnosed and pre-diabetes Diabetes is defined as FPG ≥ 126 mg/dL and/or 2-h OGTT ≥ 200 mg/dL. Prediabetes defined as IFG and/or IGT without diabetes. Undiagnosed diabetes defined as presence of actual diabetes based on FPG and/or 2-h OGTTand absence of having been told that he or she has diabetes. Age, waist circumference, history of gestational diabetes, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, high blood pressure, weight, height, parental diabetes, exercise
Kanaya et al. [57] 2005 USA Abnormal PCPG Abnormal 2-h PG postchallenge test result (≥ 140 mg/dL) Sex, age, triglycerides, FPG
Xie et al. [26] 2010 China Diagnosed and undiagnosed Participants without a previous diagnosis of diabetes were categorised according to the ADA diagnostic criteria as follows: undiagnosed diabetes (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L) and impaired fasting glycaemia (6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L). Diabetes was defined as self-reported history of diabetes plus undiagnosed diabetes. Men: waist circumference, age
Women: waist/hip ratio, age
  1. aADA, American Diabetes Association; BMI, body mass index; WHO, World Health Organisation; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; CVD, cardiovascular disease; 2-h PG, two-hour 75-g postload plasma glucose level; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; IFG, impaired fasting glucose.