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Table 2 Stratified specificity of screening questions for major depression

From: The 'help' question doesn't help when screening for major depression: external validation of the three-question screening test for primary care patients managed for physical complaints

Characteristic Prevalence of depression, % (95% CI)    Specificity, % (95% CI)
   Two screening questions Three screening questions
Overall 9.5% (7.6 to 12.0)    65.0% (61.2 to 68.6) 88.2% (85.4 to 90.5)
Gender    
   Male 9.4% (6.3 to 13.7)    69.2% (63.0 to 75.0) 90.0% (85.4 to 93.4)
   Female 9.6% (7.1 to 12.8)    62.5% (57.7 to 67.2) 87.2% (83.5 to 90.2)
Age    
   < 65 years 10.9% (8.4 to 14.1)    66.1% (61.4 to 70.5) 87.4% (83.8 to 90.3)
   ≥ 65 years 6.4% (3.8 to 10.6)    62.8% (56.0 to 69.2) 89.9% (84.9 to 93.4)
Nationality    
   Swiss 8.0% (6.0 to 10.6)    67.6% (63.3 to 71.5) 89.1% (86.0 to 91.5)
   Not Swiss 14.8% (9.4 to 22.5)    53.2% (43.4 to 62.7) 84.4% (75.9 to 90.4)
Education level    
   Professional training 9.4% (71.5 to 12.3)    66.8% (62.4 to 70.9) 88.3% (85.1 to 91.0)
   No professional training 9.0% (5.0 to 15.1)    60.6% (51.7 to 68.8) 88.6% (81.7 to 93.3)
Psychosocial stressors    
   ≥ 1 major stressor 21.5% (16.9 to 26.9)    44.3% (37.6 to 51.1) 77.6% (71.4 to 82.8)
   No major stressor 2.0% (1.0 to 4.0)    76.0% (71.7 to 79.9) 93.7% (90.9 to 95.7)
Mood disorders 1 year previously    
   Major depression 39.0% (28.6 to 50.4)    34.0% (21.6 to 48.8) 62.0% (47.1 to 75.0)
   Minor depression 15.0% (7.5 to 27.1)    43.1% (29.6 to 57.7) 84.3% (70.8 to 92.5)
   No depression 39.1% (25.2 to 59.5)    70.1% (66.0 to 73.9) 91.1% (88.3 to 93.3)
Anxiety    
   Anxiety syndrome 60.0% (45.2 to 73.2)    5% (0.2 to 26.9) 40.0% (20.0 to 63.6)
   No anxiety 57.1% (41.2 to 78.3)    67.1% (63.3 to 70.8) 89.8% (87.1 to 92.0)
Somatoform disorder    
   ≥ 3 symptoms 31.7% (22.1 to 43.0)    46.4% (33.2 to 60.1) 67.9% (53.9 to 79.4)
   < 3 symptoms 6.7% (5.0 to 9.0)    67.7% (62.7 to 70.4) 90.1% (87.4 to 92.3)