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Table 2 Comparison of baseline characteristics across the intervention groups

From: Brief psychosocial education, not core stabilization, reduced incidence of low back pain: results from the Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) cluster randomized trial

Variable Label Overall TEP TEP+PSEP CSEP CSEP+PSEP P-Value
   N = 4,325 N = 1,216 N = 952 N = 1,096 N = 1,061  
Innate characteristics
A Age   22.0 ± 4.2 21.6 ± 4.1 22.6 ± 4.5 21.8 ± 4.0 22.1 ± 4.3 <0.0001
Gender Male 3,082 870 (71.7%) 689 (72.5%) 758 (69.5%) 765 (72.7%) 0.335
  Female 1,226 344 (28.3%) 262 (27.5%) 333 (30.5%) 287 (27.3%)  
Race Black or Africa 420 104 (8.6%) 88 (9.3%) 114 (10.4%) 114 (10.8%) 0.236
  Hispanic 426 128 (10.5%) 97 (10.3%) 115 (10.5%) 86 (8.1%)  
  White or Caucas 3,190 897 (73.8%) 711 (75.2%) 797 (72.8%) 785 (74.1%)  
  Other 279 86 (7.1%) 50 (5.3%) 69 (6.3%) 74 (7.0%)  
Education High school or lower 1,935 600 (49.3%) 409 (43.0%) 484 (44.2%) 442 (41.7%) 0.0038
  Some college 1,998 504 (41.4%) 463 (48.6%) 506 (46.2%) 525 (49.5%)  
  College or higher 391 112 (9.2%) 80 (8.4%) 105 (9.6%) 94 (8.9%)  
Income Less than $20,000 2,125 620 (51.2%) 418 (44.0%) 583 (53.3%) 504 (47.7%) 0.0001
  Greater than $20,000 2,188 592 (48.8%) 532 (56.0%) 511 (46.7%) 553 (52.3%)  
Active Duty Active 2,532 725 (59.6%) 504 (52.9%) 737 (67.4%) 566 (53.4%) <0.0001
  Reserve 1,782 491 (40.4%) 446 (46.8%) 356 (32.5%) 489 (46.1%)  
  Other 8   2 (0.2%) 1 (0.1%) 5 (0.5%)  
Time In Army <5 months 2,691 768 (63.2%) 566 (59.5%) 737 (67.4%) 620 (58.5%) <0.0001
  5 months to 1 year 969 276 (22.7%) 198 (20.8%) 222 (20.3%) 273 (25.8%)  
  More than 1 year 661 172 (14.1%) 188 (19.7%) 134 (12.3%) 167 (15.8%)  
Height   68.3 ± 3.9 68.4 ± 3.7 68.4 ± 3.8 68.1 ± 4.0 68.4 ± 4.0 0.340
Weight   164.8 ± 27.7 164.8 ± 26.7 165.7 ± 28.2 163.8 ± 27.9 165.2 ± 28.0 0.426
BMI   24.8 ± 3.1 24.7 ± 3.0 24.8 ± 3.3 24.7 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.2 0.807
Psychological
BDI Total   6.4 ± 6.6 6.5 ± 6.9 6.4 ± 6.7 6.5 ± 6.5 6.3 ± 6.2 0.843
FPQ Total   18.1 ± 5.9 17.8 ± 5.9 18.2 ± 5.9 18.0 ± 6.1 18.2 ± 5.6 0.317
BBQ Total   43.4 ± 7.1 43.3 ± 7.2 43.1 ± 6.9 44.0 ± 6.8 43.2 ± 7.2 0.010
STAI   36.0 ± 9.1 36.2 ± 9.5 35.8 ± 9.1 35.7 ± 9.0 36.3 ± 9.0 0.337
Baseline health status and physical activity
SF 12 PCS   53.4 ± 5.2 53.7 ± 5.0 53.5 ± 5.0 53.4 ± 5.3 53.1 ± 5.2 0.041
SF 12 MCS   49.2 ± 8.6 49.2 ± 8.7 49.1 ± 8.7 49.2 ± 8.5 49.0 ± 8.5 0.938
Smoke Prior to Army Yes 1,552 442 (36.3%) 354 (37.2%) 374 (34.2%) 382 (36.0%) 0.534
  No 2,771 774 (63.7%) 598 (62.8%) 720 (65.8%) 679 (64.0%)  
Exercise Routinely Yes 2,220 627 (51.6%) 474 (49.8%) 560 (51.2%) 559 (52.7%) 0.647
  No 2,102 589 (48.4%) 477 (50.2%) 534 (48.8%) 502 (47.3%)  
Attention/Relational Effect
Physical Exam No 3,951 1,128 (92.8%) 855 (89.8%) 1,005 (91.7%) 963 (90.8%) 0.087
  Yes 374 88 (7.2%) 97 (10.2%) 91 (8.3%) 98 (9.2%)  
  1. BBQ, Back Beliefs Questionnaire; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BMI, body mass index; CSEP, core stabilization exercise program; FPQ, Fear of Pain Questionnaire (9 items); PSEP, psychosocial education program; SF 12 MCS, Mental Component Summary Score from the Short Form Medical Survey (12 items); SF 12 PCS, Physical Component Summary Score from the Short Form Medical Survey (12 items); STAI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (state portion only); TEP, traditional exercise program