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Table 3 Adjusted geometric mean hormone levelsa of three populations with stratification by body mass indexb

From: Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

  Japanese living in Nagano, Japan Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil Non-Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil Pfor difference
Estradiol, pg/mL     
   Low (BMI < 25) 9.5 14.2 15.0 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference 0.60  
   High (BMI ≥25) 8.2 12.2 14.5 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference 0.06  
Bioavailable estradiol, %     
   Low (BMI <25) 22.4 28.7 17.9 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference <0.01  
   High (BMI ≥ 25) 25.6 32.5 23.4 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference <0.01  
Estrone, pg/mL     
   Low (BMI < 25) 22.5 40.4 32.1 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference <0.01  
   High (BMI ≥25) 23.2 38.4 34.2 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference 0.19  
Sex hormone-binding globulin, nM/L     
   Low (BMI < 25) 76.6 62.8 85.8 0.03
   P c 0.04 Reference <0.01  
   High (BMI ≥25) 59.6 43.8 59.5 0.03
   P c 0.02 Reference 0.02  
Androstenedione, ng/mL     
   Low (BMI < 25) 0.64 0.63 0.91 0.03
   P c 0.90 Reference 0.02  
   High (BMI ≥25) 0.76 0.51 1.05 <0.01
   P c 0.03 Reference <0.01  
DHEAS, μg/dL     
   Low (BMI < 25) 51.9 64.7 48.7 0.21
   P c 0.13 Reference 0.11  
   High (BMI ≥25) 54.6 52.2 43.4 0.29
   P c 0.81 Reference 0.32  
Testosterone, ng/mL     
   Low (BMI < 25) 0.01 0.07 0.13 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference 0.27  
   High (BMI ≥25) 0.04 0.15 0.18 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference 0.69  
Free testosterone, pg/mL     
   Low (BMI < 25) 0.18 0.32 0.31 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference 0.90  
   High (BMI ≥25) 0.26 0.46 0.48 <0.01
   P c <0.01 Reference 0.85  
  1. BMI, body mass index; DHEAS, dehyroepianrosterone sulfate; aAdjusted for age (continuous), age at first menarche (continuous), age at menopause (continuous), number of births (0, 1, 2 or 3, 4+), age at first birth (≤22, 23 to 26, ≥27, nulliparous), height (continuous), BMI (continuous), smoking (never smokers, past smokers, current smokers), alcohol drinking (nondrinkers, occasional drinkers, regular drinkers) and physical activity in the past 5 years (no, ≤2 days/wk, ≥3 days/wk); bThe total participants in the low and high BMI groups were 199 and 156, respectively; c P values for comparison with Japanese Brazilians living in São Paulo, Brazil.