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Table 3 The analogy between diagnostic tests and clinical trials.

From: Significance testing as perverse probabilistic reasoning

Diagnostic testing Clinical trials
Absence of disease Truth of null hypothesis
Presence of disease Falsity of null hypothesis
Cutoff between positive and negative results Significance level, α
Test result P-value
Negative result P-value > α
Positive result P-value < α
Sensitivity Power
False positive rate (1-specificity) Significance level, α
Prior probability of disease Prior probability of a difference between groups
Posterior probability of disease, given test result Posterior probability of a difference between groups, given study results