From: Significance testing as perverse probabilistic reasoning
Diagnostic testing | Clinical trials |
---|---|
Absence of disease | Truth of null hypothesis |
Presence of disease | Falsity of null hypothesis |
Cutoff between positive and negative results | Significance level, α |
Test result | P-value |
Negative result | P-value > α |
Positive result | P-value < α |
Sensitivity | Power |
False positive rate (1-specificity) | Significance level, α |
Prior probability of disease | Prior probability of a difference between groups |
Posterior probability of disease, given test result | Posterior probability of a difference between groups, given study results |