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Table 6 Association between kidney disease and grade of hypertension among all 454 Tanzanian adult study participants and in each of the three study groups

From: Hypertension, kidney disease, HIV and antiretroviral therapy among Tanzanian adults: a cross-sectional study

Among 454 Tanzanian adult study participants
  Normal Prehypertension Hypertension Grade 1 Hypertension Grade 2 P-value for trend
(number = 184) (number = 194) (number = 60) (number = 16)
Kidney Disease a 44 (23.9%) 58 (29.9%) 40 (66.7%) 11 (68.8%) <0.001
Microalbuminuria 33 (17.9%) 49 (25.3%) 40 (66.7%) 10 (62.5%) <0.001
eGFR <60 16 (8.7%) 19 (9.8%) 14 (23.3%) 6 (37.5%) <0.001
Among 153 HIV-negative adults (controls)
  Normal Prehypertension Hypertension Grade 1 Hypertension Grade 2 P-value for trend
(number = 66) (number = 62) (number = 20) (number = 5)
Kidney Disease 8 (12.1%) 15 (24.2%) 13 (65.0%) 3 (60.0%) <0.001
Microalbuminuria 4 (6.1%) 12 (19.4%) 13 (65.0%) 2 (40.0%) <0.001
eGFR <60 5 (7.6%) 6 (9.7%) 6 (30.0%) 3 (60.0%) <0.001
Among 151 HIV-infected, ART-naive adults
  Normal Prehypertension Hypertension Grade 1 Hypertension Grade 2 P -value for trend
(number = 69) (number = 74) (number = 7) (number = 1)
Kidney Disease 22 (31.9%) 24 (32.4%) 5 (71.4%) 1 (100%) 0.11
Microalbuminuria 16 (23.2%) 21 (28.4%) 5 (71.4%) 1 (100%) 0.02
eGFR <60 8 (11.6%) 9 (12.2%) 2 (28.6%) 0 0.53
Among 150 HIV-infected adults on ART
  Normal Prehypertension Hypertension Grade 1 Hypertension Grade 2 P -value for trend
(number = 49) (number = 58) (number = 33) (number = 10)
Kidney Disease 14 (28.6%) 19 (32.8%) 22 (66.7%) 7 (70.0%) <0.001
Microalbuminuria 13 (26.5%) 16 (27.6%) 22 (66.7%) 7 (70.0%) <0.001
eGFR <60 3 (6.1%) 4 (6.9%) 6 (18.2%) 3 (30.0%) 0.01
  1. aThe primary kidney disease outcome: defined as microalbuminuria and/or eGFR <60 mL/min. ART, antiretroviral therapy; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.