Forest plot of the association of Pv MSP-3α IgG responses with Plasmodium vivax outcomes. Estimates represent the estimate of P. vivax infection in IgG responders compared with non-responders. For cross-sectional studies, estimate is an odds ratio; for cohort studies, it is a risk ratio. aData supplied by the original authors and estimate calculated by the current authors; bestimate calculated by the current authors from data in the paper; cpublished estimate. All estimates are unadjusted, with the exception of estimates from cohort data from Stanisic et al. , which were adjusted for age, season, spatial variation, and individual differences in exposure. Meta-analysis of responses to PvMSP-3αNT, PvMSP-3αRI, PvMSP-3αRII, and PvMSP-3αCT, and odds of P. vivax infection (estimates from cross-sectional studies) showed a high degree of heterogeneity (I
2 > 75% and/or P < 0.1) so estimates were not pooled. Abbreviations: LM, light microscopy; LDR-FMA, ligase detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay; PNG, Papua New Guinea.