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Table 4 Characteristics of participants in the prospective mortality prediction cohort according to different LFS thresholds

From: Non-invasive score identifies ultrasonography-diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts mortality in the USA

Characteristics Low LFS (n = 3,524) Intermediate LFS (n = 1,890) High LFS (n = 478) Pvalue
Value 95% CI Value 95% CI Value 95% CI
Age, years 39.23 38.34 to 40.13 45.50 44.28 to 46.71 45.04 42.78 to 47.29 <0.001
Sex, female % 56.40 54.1 to 58.7 42.30 39.3 to 45.3 45.70 38.1 to 53.5 <0.001
Race/ethnicity, %        <0.001
Non-Hispanic white 78.40 75.5 to 81.1 74.10 69.3 to 78.4 73.30 68.0 to 78.0 <0.001
Non-Hispanic black 10.30 8.9 to 11.8 10.50 8.8 to 12.5 10.90 8.6 to 13.7 <0.001
Mexican-American 4.20 3.5 to 5.1 6.40 5.1 to 8.0 7.80 5.3 to 11.2 <0.001
Other 7.10 5.4 to 9.3 9.00 5.9 to 13.4 8.00 5.6 to 11.5 <0.001
Education, %        <0.001
< High school 4.10 3.2 to 5.2 8.20 6.0 to 11.0 8.10 5.5 to 11.7 <0.001
High school 13.30 11.7 to 15.0 18.80 15.6 to 22.4 16.80 13.8 to 20.3 <0.001
> High school 82.60 80.3 to 84.7 73.10 68.4 to 77.3 75.10 70.1 to 79.6 <0.001
Smoking, %        <0.001
Never 49.20 46.2 to 52.3 41.00 37.3 to 44.8 47.90 40.3 to 55.5 <0.001
Former 21.60 19.6 to 23.7 33.20 29.5 to 37.1 32.30 25.9 to 39.5 <0.001
Current 29.20 26.4 to 32.2 25.80 23.1 to 28.6 19.80 14.1 to 27.1 <0.001
Diabetes, % 0.20 0.1 to 0.3 5.70 4.6 to 7.0 26.20 21.3 to 31.7 <0.001
Hypertension, % 10.00 8.7 to 11.4 32.70 29.6 to 36.0 45.40 39.6 to 51.3 <0.001
Lipid-lowering medication, % 1.10 .7 to 1.8 5.40 4.1 to 7.1 7.20 4.4 to 11.6 <0.001
History of CVD, % 1.30 .9 to 1.9 3.40 2.4 to 4.8 5.10 3.1 to 8.2 <0.001
Poverty income ratio 3.25 3.09 to 3.4 2.98 2.76 to 3.2 2.83 2.54 to 3.11 0.003
Waist circumference, cm 85.22 84.74 to 85.71 100.22 99.52 to 100.92 112.22 110.51 to 113.93 <0.001
Dietary caffeine intake, mg 272.81 251.75 to 293.87 276.43 234.41 to 318.45 216.06 189.12 to 243 0.222
Serum cholesterol, mg/dl 196.06 194.01 to 198.11 213.02 209.91 to 216.14 218.33 211.56 to 225.1 <0.001
Serum HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 53.38 52.51 to 54.25 43.81 42.74 to 44.89 39.06 37.89 to 40.23 <0.001
Serum transferrin saturation, % 27.78 27.25 to 28.31 26.25 25.55 to 26.95 25.54 23.88 to 27.2 <0.001
Serum C-reactive protein, mg/dl 0.33 0.31 to 0.35 0.45 0.42 to 0.49 0.58 0.5 to 0.66 <0.001
Drinks/weeka 2.68 2.45 to 2.9 2.32 2.01 to 2.64 1.62 1.11 to 2.13 <0.001
LFS -2.53 -2.58 to -2.48 -0.41 -0.46 to -0.36 3.20 2.83 to 3.57 <0.001
Mortality        
All causes 8.90 7.7 to 10.2 13.60 11.4 to 16.2 17.70 12.9 to 23.9 <0.001
CVD-related 2.80 2.3 to 3.5 5.10 4.0 to 6.4 9.00 5.4 to 14.8 <0.001
Liver-related 0.10 0.0 to 0.3 0.10 0.0 to 0.2 1.20 0.3 to 5.2 0.069
Diabetes-related 0.20 0.1 to 0.5 0.90 0.6 to 1.5 3.90 2.0 to 7.4 <0.001
Malignancy-related 2.80 2.1 to 3.8 3.60 2.5 to 5.2 2.00 1.0 to 4.2 0.698
  1. CVD, cardiovascular disease; LFS, liver fat score; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  2. aA drink was defined as a 12-oz beer, a 4-oz glass of wine, or 1-oz of liquor (spirits).