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Table 2 Stratified analysis on the associations of dietary calcium intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes

From: Dietary calcium intake and mortality risk from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

  Cardiovascular mortality   All-cause mortality   
  Number RR (95% CI) P a I 2 (%) Number RR (95% CI) P a I 2 (%)
Location:         
United States 2 1.04 (0.98 to 1.10) 0.50 0.0 - - - -
Europe 4 0.90 (0.73 to 1.12) 0.20 36.1 3 0.85 (0.68 to 1.06) 0.08 61.1
Asia 3 0.95 (0.81 to 1.12) 0.56 0.0 2 0.80 (0.52 to 1.23) 0.002 89.9
Sex:         
Male and female 3 0.99 (0.70 to 1.39) 0.22 33.3 2 0.66 (0.53 to 0.82) 0.45 0.0
Male 5 0.88 (0.74 to 1.06) 0.06 55.2 2 0.91 (0.74 to 1.11) 0.14 54.7
Female 5 1.04 (0.95 to 1.13) 0.90 0.0 2 0.90 (0.63 to 1.29) 0.001 90.6
Follow-up time:         
>10 years 6 1.03 (0.97 to 1.08) 0.46 0.0 3 0.98 (0.89 to 1.07) 0.56 0.0
≤10 years 3 0.87 (0.70 to 1.08) 0.28 21.5 2 0.71 (0.60 to 0.83) 0.26 22.0
Controlling for vitamin D status in models:       
Yes 4 0.92 (0.74 to 1.15) 0.22 32.7 2 0.87 (0.65 to 1.16) 0.03 80.0
No 5 1.02 (0.97 to 1.08) 0.44 0.0 3 0.79 (0.57 to 1.10) 0.006 80.7
  1. a P for heterogeneity. CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk.