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Table 2 Association of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) with fruit and vegetable intakes in 22 intervention studies

From: Association of behaviour change techniques with effectiveness of dietary interventions among adults of retirement age: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

BCT Number of studies or subgroups BCT present Yes (No) Sample size BCT present Yes (No) BCT present Mean difference (95% CI) I2(95% CI) BCT absent Mean difference (95%CI) I2(95% CI) (Mean difference of Mean differences (95%CI))P
Motivational interviewing 7 (18) 10,183 (49503) 52.8 (33.1 to 72.8) 81 (61 to 90) 105.1 (71.4 to 138.7) 97 (95 to 97) (-52 (-91 to -13)) 0.009
Provide information on consequences of behaviour to the individual 11 (14) 12,488 (9394) 60.1 (45.0 to 75.3) 62 (27 to 80) 109.6 (64.6 to 154.9) 96 (95 to 97) (-49 (-97 to -2)) 0.040
Prompt review of behavioural goals 5 (20) 7,163 (52562) 69.1 (55.8 to 82.3) 53 (0 to 83) 92.9 (59.7 to 126.1) 97 (96 to 98) (-24 (-60 to 12)) 0.190
Goal setting (behaviour) 23 (2) 59,323 (402) 89.0 (63.6 to 114.5) 97 (96 to 98) 95.7 (-63.1 to 254.4) 88 (N/A) (-7 (-166 to 153)) 0.940
Model/Demonstrate the behaviour 6 (19) 3,258 (56467) 91.3 (56.9 to 125.7) 71 (32 to 87) 85.0 (55.9 to 114.2) 95 (97 to 98) (6 (-39 to 51)) 0.790
Provide instruction on how to perform the behaviour 15 (10) 53,717 (6008) 99.5 (69.6 to 129.5) 97 (96 to 98) 67.8 (34.5 to 101.2) 78 (59 to 88) (32 (-13 to 77)) 0.170
Provide information on consequences of behaviour in general 18 (7) 53,298 (6427) 97.8 (67.6 to 127.9) 97 (96 to 98) 66.7 (32.3 to 101.1) 86 (74 to 93) (31 (-15 to 77)) 0.180
Provide feedback on performance 14 (11) 54,563 (5162) 102.5 (68.9 to 136.0) 98 (97 to 98) 63 (37.9 to 88.0) 78 (60 to 87) (39 (-2 to 81)) 0.060
Goal setting (outcome) 11 (14) 43,702 (16023) 118.1 (74.3 to 161.9) 97 (96 to 98) 62.8 (43.5 to 82.2) 83 (73 to 90) (55 (7 to 103)) 0.020
Use of follow-up prompts 9 (16) 41,627 (18098) 127.4 (74.1 to 180..7) 95 (92 to 97) 60.9 (43.4 to 78.4) 86 (78 to 91) (66 (10 to 123)) 0.020
  1. Mean differences and 95%CI are for fruit and vegetable (F and V) intakes in grams/day. P-values correspond to Chi square test for difference between groups (that is, BCT present versus BCT absent). CI, confidence interval.