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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients and carers by arm, BIS Phase IIIm

From: Is a specialist breathlessness service more effective and cost-effective for patients with advanced cancer and their carers than standard care? Findings of a mixed-method randomised controlled trial

Baseline characteristics Mean (SD) or % (number)
Intervention arm Control arm Total
Patient baseline characteristics
Age (years) 70 (9.4) 67 (13.3) 69 (11.5)
Sex (female) 59% (21) 62% (20) 61% (41)
Lives alone 34% (12) 28% (9) 31% (21)
Cancer site (primary):    
Lung 45% (16) 54% (17) 49% (33)
Breast 25% (9) 13% (4) 19% (13)
Rectal/bowel 6% (2) 6% (2) 6% (4)
Prostate 6% (2) 3% (1) 4% (3)
Lymphoma 3% (1) 6% (2) 4% (3)
Mesothelioma 3% (1) 6% (2) 4% (3)
Gastro-oesophageal junction 3% (1) 3% (1) 3% (2)
Renal 3% (1) 3% (1) 3% (2)
Endometrial 0% (0) 3% (1) 2% (1)
Hepatocellular 3% (1) 0% (0) 2% (1)
Bladder 0% (0) 3% (1) 2% (1)
Unknown primary 3% (1) 0% (0) 2% (1)
Charlson Co-Morbidity Index (0 to 9)a 6.34 (2.30) 5.63 (2.14) 6.00 (2.24)
Australia-modified Karnofsky Performance Scale (0 to 100)b,c 71.1 (12.6) 74.1 (14.8) 72.5 (13.6)
Modified Borg: breathlessness at rest (0 to 10)a 1.69 (1.09) 1.39 (1.77) 1.55 (1.45)
Modified Borg: breathlessness on exertion (0 to 10)a 5.27 (2.18) 5.13 (2.21) 5.20 (2.18)
NRS worst breathlessness 24 hours (0 to 10)a 4.97 (2.46) 4.19 (2.28) 4.60 (2.39)
NRS breathlessness now (0 to 10)a 2.29 (1.74) 1.81 (1.38) 2.06 (1.59)
NRS average breathlessness 24 hours (0 to 10)a 3.83 (1.67) 3.38 (1.93) 3.61 (1.80)
NRS distress due to breathlessness (0 to 10)a 5.17 (2.81) 4.94 (2.84) 5.06 (2.81)
Anxiety score (HADS) (0 to 21)a 6.97 (4.01) 8.09 (3.31) 7.52 (3.70)
Depression score (HADS) (0 to 21)a 6.61 (2.73) 5.91 (2.99) 6.26 (2.87)
Anxiety (HADS)a:    
Normal (0 to 7) 55% (18) 53% (17) 54% (35)
Mild (8 to 10; possible clinical disorder) 27% (9) 19% (6) 23% (15)
Moderate (11 to 14; probable clinical disorder) 15% (5) 25% (8) 20% (13)
Severe (15 to 21; probable clinical disorder) 3% (1) 3% (1) 3% (2)
Depression (HADS)a:    
Normal (0 to 7) 70% (23) 78% (25) 74% (48)
Mild (8 to 10; possible clinical disorder) 21% (7) 9% (3) 15% (10)
Moderate (11 to 14; probable clinical disorder) 9% (3) 13% (4) 11% (7)
Severe (15 to 21; probable clinical disorder) 0% (0) 0% (0) 0% (0)
CRQ dyspnoea score (1 to 7)b 3.42 (0.99) 3.39 (0.98) 3.41 (0.98)
CRQ fatigue score (1 to 7)b 3.38 (1.33) 3.20 (1.07) 3.29 (1.20)
CRQ emotional function score (1 to 7)b 4.43 (1.02) 4.46 (1.30) 4.35 (1.06)
CRQ mastery score (1 to 7)b 4.57 (1.15) 4.46 (1.30) 4.52 (1.22)
Number of respondents (patients) 33-35 32 65-67
Carer baseline characteristics
Carer age (years) 65.6 (13.4) 63.5 (12.2) 64.6 (12.7)
Carer sex (female) 70% (14) 67% (14) 68% (28)
Carer employment status:    
Employed - full time 11% (2) 24% (5) 18% (7)
Employed - part time 22% (4) 5% (1) 13% (5)
Retired 61% (11) 57% (12) 59% (23)
Other (e.g. unemployed due to illness/student) 6% (1) 14% (3) 10% (4)
NRS carer distress due to patient breathlessness (0 to 10)a 3.56 (2.44) 3.86 (2.82) 3.72 (2.62)
Carer anxiety score (HADS) (0 to 21)a 7.89 (5.33) 6.76 (3.59) 7.28 (4.45)
Carer depression score (HADS) (0 to 21)a 3.39 (3.91) 4.29 (2.93) 3.87 (3.40)
Carer anxiety (HADS)a:    
Normal (0 to 7) 44% (8) 57% (12) 51% (20)
Mild (8 to 10; possible clinical disorder) 17% (3) 24% (5) 21% (8)
Moderate (11 to 14; probable clinical disorder) 28% (5) 19% (4) 23% (9)
Severe (15 to 21; probable clinical disorder) 11% (2) 0% (0) 5% (2)
Carer depression (HADS)a:    
Normal (0 to 7) 78% (14) 76% (16) 77% (30)
Mild (8 to 10; possible clinical disorder) 22% (4) 19% (4) 20% (8)
Moderate (11 to 14; probable clinical disorder) 0% (0) 5% (1) 3% (1)
Severe (15 to 21; probable clinical disorder) 0% (0) 0% (0) 0% (0)
Number of respondents (carers) 18-20 19-21 39-41
No carer/no carer interview 43% (15) 34% (11) 39% (26)
  1. aHigh score is worse; bhigh score is better; ca score of 70 represents `cares for self yet unable to carry on normal activity or to do active work’. BIS, Breathlessness Intervention Service; CRQ, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score; NRS, numerical rating scale.