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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the NCWS patient group, compared to the control group composed of patients with IBS unrelated to NCWS and of CD patients

From: Risk of low bone mineral density and low body mass index in patients with non-celiac wheat-sensitivity: a prospective observation study

Variables NCWS Patients IBS Patients CD Patients P value
(Number = 75) (Number = 65) (Number = 50)
Sex 12 M, 63 F 10 M, 55 F 8 M, 42 F n.s.
Age range (median) 20 to 49 years (36 years) 19 to 50 years (35 years) 20 to 50 years (35 years) n.s.
IBS type     
Diarrhea 45 (60%) 36 (55%) 20 ‘typical’  
Constipation 7 (9%) 7 (11%) 30 ‘atypical’ n.s.
Alternate bowel movements 23 (31%) 22 (34%)   
Symptom duration median (range) 5 years (1 to 30 years) 4 years (0.5 to 20 years) 4 years (0.5 to 10 years) n.s.
Weight loss 24/75 (29%) 3/65 (4%) 15/50 (30%) NCGS vs. IBS 0.0003
CD vs. IBS 0.0001
CD vs. NCGS n.s.
Anemia (Hb <12 g/dl) 12/75 (16%) 4/65 (6%) 25/50 (50%) NCGS vs. IBS 0.02
CD vs. IBS 0.0001
CD vs. NCGS 0.01
Family history of CD 18/75 (24%) 0/65 (0%) 10/50 (20%) NCGS vs. IBS 0.0002
CD vs. IBS 0.001
CD vs. NCGS n.s.
Coexistent atopy 23/75 (30%) 6/65 (9.5%) 10/50 (20%) NCGS vs. IBS 0.01
CD vs. IBS n.s.
CD vs. NCGS n.s.
  1. Weight loss was considered when the patients reported a loss >10% of body weight during the previous year. Family history of CD indicates a CD diagnosis in a first-degree relative. Atopic diseases were: rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis. CD, celiac disease; F, female; Hb, hemoglobin; IBS, irritable bowel syndrome; M, male; NCGS, non-celiac gluten sensitivity; NCWS, non-celiac wheat sensitivity; n.s., not significant; vs., versus.