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Table 4 Social determinants (from pooled data) of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women of 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa

From: Prevalence, distribution, and social determinants of tobacco use in 30 sub-Saharan African countries

 

Men

Women

 

Smoking

P value

SLT use

P value

Smoking

P value

SLT use

P value

 

aOR (95% CI)

 

aOR (95% CI)

 

aOR (95% CI)

 

aOR (95% CI)

 

Age group

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

15–19

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

20–29

0.87 (0.81, 0.93)

 

1.22 (1.10, 1.34)

 

1.62 (1.47, 1.80)

 

1.98 (1.82, 2.15)

 

30–39

0.91 (0.85, 0.97)

 

1.77 (1.60, 1.96)

 

2.58 (2.28, 2.91)

 

4.08 (3.70, 4.49)

 

40–49

1.22 (1.14, 1.32)

 

2.93 (2.61, 3.29)

 

4.30 (3.36, 5.51)

 

8.37 (6.70, 10.44)

 

≥50

5.31 (4.75, 5.93)

 

7.03 (5.76, 8.59)

 

 

 

Education

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

Higher

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Secondary

0.90 (0.85, 0.95)

 

1.15 (1.05, 1.26)

 

1.80 (1.59, 2.04)

 

1.49 (1.36, 1.64)

 

Primary

1.13 (1.06, 1.21)

 

1.75 (1.56, 1.96)

 

1.88 (1.60, 2.22)

 

2.97 (2.56, 3.46)

 

No education

1.80 (1.61, 2.00)

 

2.62 (2.04, 3.36)

 

2.00 (1.47, 2.72)

 

10.68 (6.60, 17.26)

 

Wealth index

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

Richest

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Richer

1.16 (1.10, 1.23)

 

1.30 (1.18, 1.43)

 

1.13 (1.00, 1.28)

 

1.33 (1.21, 1.47)

 

Middle

1.23 (1.16, 1.31)

 

1.32 (1.18, 1.47)

 

1.27 (1.10, 1.46)

 

1.49 (1.34, 1.66)

 

Poorer

1.38 (1.29, 1.48)

 

1.92 (1.68, 2.18)

 

1.37 (1.18, 1.58)

 

2.05 (1.79, 2.34)

 

Poorest

1.51 (1.39, 1.64)

 

2.89 (2.40, 3.50)

 

1.24 (1.02, 1.50)

 

3.36 (2.71, 4.16)

 

Religion

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

Islam

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Catholic

1.67 (1.53, 1.83)

 

1.62 (1.33, 1.99)

 

1.95 (1.49, 2.54)

 

1.52 (1.18, 1.96)

 

Protestant

1.40 (1.30, 1.50)

 

0.88 (0.77, 0.99)

 

1.04 (0.87, 1.25)

 

0.77 (0.67, 0.90)

 

Other Christian

2.08 (1.92, 2.26)

 

1.11 (0.96, 1.28)

 

2.10 (1.70, 2.59)

 

0.99 (0.84, 1.16)

 

No Religion*

2.48 (2.30, 2.67)

 

1.56 (1.34, 1.82)

 

2.37 (1.91, 2.94)

 

1.13 (0.95, 1.35)

 

Marital status

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

Not in Union

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Married

1.66 (1.52, 1.82)

 

1.21 (1.02, 1.44)

 

1.11 (0.96, 1.28)

 

1.01 (0.88, 1.16)

 

Living Together

1.93 (1.78, 2.09)

 

1.29 (1.12, 1.49)

 

1.58 (1.39, 1.80)

 

1.25 (1.13, 1.38)

 

Single¥

2.07 (1.89, 2.26)

 

1.48 (1.26, 1.75)

 

2.04 (1.68, 2.49)

 

1.79 (1.48, 2.16)

 

Residence

 

<0.001

 

0.878

 

<0.001

 

0.288

Urban

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Rural

1.12 (1.06, 1.19)

 

1.01 (0.90, 1.14)

 

1.52 (1.31, 1.76)

 

0.92 (0.79, 1.07)

 

Occupation

 

<0.001

 

<0.001

 

0.051

 

<0.001

Unemployed

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Professional×

1.13 (1.07, 1.19)

 

0.85 (0.76, 0.93)

 

0.99 (0.82, 1.20)

 

0.88 (0.76, 1.02)

 

Agriculture

1.37 (1.28, 1.46)

 

1.29 (1.13, 1.49)

 

1.02 (0.85, 1.23)

 

1.30 (1.10, 1.54)

 

Unskilled

1.82 (1.68, 1.97)

 

1.71 (1.44, 2.04)

 

1.18 (0.99, 1.40)

 

1.11 (0.94, 1.30)

 
  1. Multivariate analyses were statistically controlled for age, education, wealth index, religion, marital status, type of residence, and occupation; aOR, Adjusted odds ratios; CI, Confidence interval; SLT, Smokeless tobacco.
  2. In most countries men older than 49 years (i.e., up to 54, 59, or 64 years) were surveyed.
  3. Includes various Christian faiths such as Adventist, Pentecostal, Eglise, Zionist, etc.
  4. *Includes traditional religions such Vodoun in Benin, Animism etc.
  5. ¥Single includes widowed, divorced, separated, and not living together any longer.
  6. ×Professional includes technical, manager, clerical and business or sales; unskilled/manual includes household and domestic work other than agriculture.