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Table 4 Prevalence of anaemia, number of blood transfusions and mortality, by site

From: Anaemia and blood transfusion in African children presenting to hospital with severe febrile illness

  Kenya Uganda Tanzania TOTAL
N (%) Kilifi Mulago Soroti Lacor Mbale Teule  
Children with admission Hb 215 745 629 232 1,164 97 3,082
ADMISSION FINDINGS        
Severe pallor 77 (36%) 310 (42%) 364 (58%) 122 (53%) 648 (56%) 54 (56%) 1,575 (51%)
Jaundice 1 (<1%) 55 (7%) 169 (27%) 27 (12%) 721 (62%) 1 (1%) 974 (32%)
Haemoglobinuria 1 (<1%) 46 (6%) 136 (22%) 26 (11%) 174 (15%) 2 (2%) 385 (13%)
Malaria parasitaemia 87 (40%) 369 (50%) 338 (54%) 160 (69%) 742 (64%) 53 (55%) 1,749 (57%)
BLOOD TRANSFUSION        
All children        
Received any transfusion (%) 45 (21%) 251 (34%) 332 (53%) 97 (42%) 616 (53%) 46 (47%) 1,387 (45%)
Received one or more re-transfusions (% of those transfused) 1 (2%) 82 (33%) 68 (20%) 14 (14%) 150 (24%) 2 (4%) 317 (23%)
Severe anaemia (Hb <5 g/dL)        
At admission 28 (13%) 172 (23%) 269 (43%) 59 (25%) 452 (39%) 22 (23%) 1,002 (33%)
At 8 hours* 15/193 (8%) 93/704 (13%) 90/534 (17%) 40/204 (20%) 174/1,078 (16%) 16/83 (19%) 428/2,796 (15%)
At 24 hours* 13/191 (7%) 46/687 (7%) 59/568 (10%) 31/197 (16%) 89/1,032 (9%) 4/79 (5%) 242/2,754 (9%)
Received any transfusion (%) 26 (93%) 156 (91%) 250 (93%) 56 (95%) 425 (94%) 20 (91%) 933 (94%)
Received one or more re-transfusions (% of those transfused) 1 (4%) 65 (42%) 61 (24%) 14 (25%) 133 (31%) 1 (5%) 275 (29%)
Moderate anaemia (Hb 5 to <7 g/dL)        
At admission 32 (15%) 110 (15%) 81 (13%) 51 (22%) 204 (18%) 23 (24%) 501 (16%)
At 8 hours* 39/193 (20%) 191/704 (27%) 185/534 (35%) 68/204 (33%) 326/1,078 (30%) 27/83 (33%) 836/2,796 (30%)
At 24 hours* 39/191 (20%) 163/687 (24%) 182/568 (32%) 71/197 (36%) 329/1,032 (32%) 20/79 (25%) 804/2,754 (29%)
Received any transfusion (%) 16 (50%) 76 (69%) 58 (72%) 30 (59%) 150 (74%) 21 (91%) 351 (70%)
Received one or more re-transfusions (% of those transfused) 0 (0%) 17 (22%) 7 (12%) 0 (0%) 16 (11%) 1 (5%) 41 (12%)
Mild anaemia (Hb 7 to <10 g/dL)        
At admission 88 (41%) 198 (27%) 148 (24%) 83 (36%) 301 (26%) 25 (26%) 843 (27%)
At 8 hours* 106/193 (55%) 267/704 (27%) 210/534 (39%) 75/204 (37%) 429/1,078 (39%) 32/83 (39%) 1,119/2,796 (40%)
At 24 hours* 105/191 (55%) 309/687 (45%) 239/568 (42%) 76/197 (39%) 474/1,032 (46%) 41/79 (52%) 1,244/2,754 (45%)
Received any transfusion (%) 3 (3%) 19 (10%) 22 (15%) 11 (13%) 40 (13%) 4 (16%) 99 (12%)
Received one or more transfusions (% of those transfused) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 1 (1%)
MORTALITY        
Died by 48 hours 21 (10%) 62 (8%) 58 (9%) 36 (16%) 108 (9%) 20 (21%) 305 (10%)
Died by 28 days 26 (12%) 76 (10%) 70 (11%) 41 (18%) 118 (10%) 22 (23%) 353 (12%)
  1. *Denominators vary due to deaths or missing Hb values.