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Table 3 Association between dietary patterns and risk of frailty during a 3.5-year follow-up of older adults

From: Major dietary patterns and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study

  Prudent pattern Westernized pattern  
  Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3   Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3  
   Odds ratio Odds ratio P- trend   Odds ratio Odds ratio P -trend
   (95% CI) (95% CI)    (95% CI) (95% CI)  
Main analysis         
  Number of frailty events 48 27 21   24 35 37  
  Model 1 Ref. 0.69 (0.41–1.17) 0.59 (0.33–1.04) 0.05 Ref. 1.53 (0.87–2.72) 1.61 (0.91–2.84) 0.11
  Model 2 Ref. 0.64 (0.37–1.12) 0.40 (0.20–0.81)* 0.009 Ref. 1.53 (0.85–2.75) 1.61 (0.85–3.03) 0.14
Sensitivity analyses         
   Excluding weight loss from the definition of frailty         
  Number of frailty events 102 78 62   71 81 90  
  Model 1 Ref. 0.80 (0.57–1.13) 0.72 (0.50–1.03) 0.07 Ref. 1.23 (0.86–1.76) 1.43 (1.00–2.03)* 0.04
  Model 2 Ref. 0.83 (0.58–1.18) 0.67 (0.44–1.02) 0.06 Ref. 1.27 (0.88–1.83) 1.53 (1.03–2.26)* 0.03
   Excluding 58 individuals with eating difficulty         
  Number of frailty events 40 23 13   20 31 31  
  Model 1 Ref. 0.70 (0.40–1.23) 0.63 (0.34–1.15) 0.11 Ref. 1.69 (0.92–3.13) 1.61 (0.87–2.98) 0.14
  Model 2 Ref. 0.64 (0.35–1.18) 0.40 (0.19–0.84)* 0.01 Ref. 1.64 (0.87–3.11) 1.45 (0.73–2.90) 0.28
   Excluding 543 individuals with diagnosed severe diseases         
  Number of frailty events 29 12 10   14 19 18  
  Model 1 Ref. 0.54 (0.26–1.13) 0.48 (0.22–1.05) 0.05 Ref. 1.30 (0.61–2.76) 1.34 (0.62–2.87) 0.46
  Model 2a Ref. 0.52 (0.24–1.16) 0.34 (0.13–0.89)* 0.02 Ref. 1.23 (0.57–2.67) 1.44 (0.63–3.29) 0.38
   Excluding 182 individuals with limitation in IADLb         
  Number of frailty events 32 17 10   15 22 22  
  Model 1 Ref. 0.55 (0.29–1.03) 0.40 (0.19–0.85)* 0.01 Ref. 1.56 (0.78–3.10) 1.39 (0.69–2.80) 0.37
  Model 2 Ref. 0.49 (0.25–0.98)* 0.26 (0.11–0.63)** 0.002 Ref. 1.70 (0.84–3.44) 1.36 (0.63–2.94) 0.40
  1. CI, Confidence interval; IADL, Instrumental activities of daily living; *P <0.05, **P <0.01.
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for number of frailty components at baseline (0, 1, 2), sex, age, educational level (≤primary, secondary, university), and occupation (social class I, II, III, IV).
  3. Model 2: Adjusted additionally for tobacco (never smoker, former smoker, current smoker), body mass index (kg/m2), energy intake (kcal/d), cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, asthma or chronic bronchitis, osteomuscular disease, depression requiring treatment, number of drug treatments, and score on the Mini-Mental State Examination.
  4. aAs model 2 above but without adjustment for cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, asthma or chronic bronchitis, and depression requiring treatment; bAnother 28 individuals had missing data on IADL; n = 1,872.