Skip to main content

Table 2 Pooled crude and adjusted odd ratios of influenza vaccine effectiveness (per outcome) during influenza-season and off-season in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated diabetic patients

From: Vaccines for the prevention of seasonal influenza in patients with diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis

Age-group (years) Outcome/Design   No of studies included Crude OR (95% CI) I 2 No of studies included Adjusted OR (95% CI) I 2 No of studies included Off-season adjusted OR (95% CI) I 2
0–17 No studies 0 0 0
18–64 All-cause mortality          
   Case–control studies 1 0.46 (0.11–1.89) NA1 1 0.76 (0.07–8.06) NA1 0 NA1
  All-cause hospitalization          
   Case–control studies 2 0.32 (0.19–0.54) 0% 3 0.42 (0.19–0.94) 77% 1 0.73 (0.65–0.83) NA1
  Influenza/pneumonia hospitalization         
   Case–control studies 0 1 0.57 (0.46–0.72) NA1 1 0.88 (0.68–1.14) NA1
  Influenza-like illness          
   Cohort studies 1 0.76 (0.50–1.15) NA1 0 0
   Case–control studies 0 1 0.99 (0.97–1.01) NA1 1 1.00 (0.90–1.12) NA1
≥65 All-cause mortality          
   Cohort studies 3 0.54 (0.37–0.79) 90% 2 0.62 (0.57–0.68) 0% 1 0.70 (0.37–1.31) NA1
   Case–control studies 2 0.39 (0.35–0.43) 0% 2 0.44 (0.36–0.53) 0% 0
  All-cause hospitalization          
   Cohort studies 1 0.83 (0.72–0.95) NA1 0 1 0.91 (0.71–1.17) NA1
   Case–control studies 2 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0% 3 0.77 (0.60–0.99) 94% 1 0.66 (0.59–0.74) NA1
  Influenza/pneumonia hospitalization         
   Case–control studies 1 0.20 (0.07–0.61) NA1 1 0.55 (0.47–0.66) NA1 1 0.48 (0.32–0.70) NA1
  Influenza-like illness          
   Case–control studies 0 1 0.87 (0.84–0.90) NA1 1 0.82 (0.70–0.96) NA1
Not reported Influenza/pneumonia hospitalization         
   Cohort studies 1 1.75 (0.10–32.68) NA1 0 0
  Influenza-like illness          
   Cohort studies 1 0.34 (0.02–5.85) NA1 0 0
  1. OR, Odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% Confidence interval; 1Only one study.