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Table 5 Poisson regression of risk factors for mortality among patients receiving ART

From: The predictive value of current haemoglobin levels for incident tuberculosis and/or mortality during long-term antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cohort study

  Unadjusted IRR (95%CI) P -value* Adjusted IRR (95%CI) P -value*
Age (for each year increase) 1.04 (1.02-1.06) <0.001 1.04 (1.02-1.06) <0.001
Gender     
Female 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.002
Male 1.69 (1.25-2.29)   1.79 (1.21-2.66)  
WHO stage at baseline     
1/2 1.00 <0.001 1.0 0.011
3/4 3.34 (1.93-5.78)   2.06 (1.12-3.78)  
Baseline anaemia severity     
None 1.0 0.025   
Mild 1.10 (0.67-1.80)    
Moderate 1.66 (1.09-2.53)    
Severe 2.28 (1.08-4.85)    
Baseline CD4 category (cells/μL)     
≥150 1.0 0.011   
100-149 1.05 (0.66-1.67)    
50-99 1.20 (0.77-1.86)    
<50 1.83 (1.22-2.75)    
Baseline viral load (cells/mL)     
<5.0 1.0 0.007   
≥5.0 1.51 (1.12-2.05)    
CD4 category (cells/μL) (updated)**     
≥500 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
200-499 2.05 (1.11-3.78)   1.38 (0.71-2.68)  
100-199 6.39 (3.44-11.88)   2.75 (1.28-5.89)  
<100 27.98 (15.59-50.22)   6.50 (2.82-15.00)  
Viral load (cells/mL) (updated)**     
<1,000 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.034
≥1,000 6.91 (5.18-9.22)   1.62 (1.04-2.53)  
WHO anaemia severity (updated)**     
None 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
Mild 3.19 (2.11-4.81)   2.42 (1.55-3.77)  
Moderate 10.89 (7.57-15.64)   6.03 (3.93-9.24)  
Severe 25.94 (13.90-48.40)   7.99 (3.89-16.44)  
Duration of ART (months)**     
<4 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.843
4-12 0.35 (0.24-0.52)   1.30 (0.77-2.16)  
12-24 0.15 (0.10-0.24)   1.07 (0.55-2.07)  
24-36 0.13 (0.08-0.21)   0.96 (0.46-1.99)  
36-48 0.13 (0.08-0.22)   1.07 (0.46-2.46)  
48-60 0.09 (0.05-0.17)   0.83 (0.32-2.17)  
>60 0.08 (0.04-0.17)   0.78 (0.27-2.23)  
Current AZT use     
No 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.501
Yes 0.38 (0.27-0.54)   0.86 (0.56-1.33)  
Prevalent TB     
No 1.0 <0.001 1.0 0.024
Yes 1.72 (1.27-2.33)   1.50 (1.06-2.14)  
Incident TB     
No 1.0 <0.001 1.0 <0.001
Yes 1.85 (1.34-2.55)   2.23 (1.47-3.37)  
  1. Abbreviations:ART antiretroviral, TB tuberculosis, WHO World Health Organization, IRR incident rate ratio.
  2. *P-values calculated using likelihood ratio tests.
  3. **No evidence for interaction between time-updated anaemia severity and time-updated CD4 count, time-updated viral load, duration of ART, WHO stage at ART initiation.