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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by randomization group

From: Procalcitonin and pyuria-based algorithm reduces antibiotic use in urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial

  Control group PCT/Pyuria group P value a
n 64 61  
Demographics    
 Age, median (IQR), y 75 (51–80) 71 (44–81) 0.65
 Females, n (%) 52 (81%) 43 (70%) 0.16
Charlson comorbidity index, median (IQR) 4 (1-7) 3 (0-6) 0.20
Clinical history, n (%)    
 Dysuria 27 (42%) 29 (48%) 0.55
 Urinary urgency 27 (43%) 22 (36%) 0.44
 Frequent urination 23 (36%) 24 (39%) 0.69
 Flank pain 20 (31%) 21 (34%) 0.71
Clinical findings, median (IQR)    
 Confusion, n (%) 16 (25%) 13 (21%) 0.63
 Body temperature, °C 37.7 (36.9–38.6) 38.2 (37.0–39.0) 0.20
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 128 (110–145) 120 (108–135) 0.055
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 69 (60–80) 70 (60–79) 0.85
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min 16 (15–20) 16 (14–18) 0.18
Laboratory findings, median (IQR)    
 Leukocyte count, × 109cells/L 10.77 (7.83–14.34) 12.28 (9.18–15.65) 0.12
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 34 (9–142) 44 (7–131) 0.84
 PCT, μg/L 0.20 (0.08–1.34) 0.32 (0.11–1.32) 0.68
 PCT ≥0.25 μg/L, n (%) 29 (45%) 33 (54%) 0.33
 Serum creatinine, μmol/L 100 (77–136) 93 (74–117) 0.60
 Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 6.5 (4.9–10.2) 6.3 (4.6–9.3) 0.64
Bacteremic patients, n (%) 19 (30%) 9 (15%) 0.045
Final diagnosis, n (%)    
 Uncomplicated simple UTI 6 (9%) 2 (3%) 0.36
 Complicated simple UTI 12 (19%) 16 (26%)  
 Uncomplicated febrile UTI/pyelonephritis 8 (13%) 9 (15%)  
 Complicated febrile UTI/pyelonephritis 34 (53%) 33 (54%)  
 Other final diagnosisb 4 (6%) 1 (2%)  
Complicated UTI 46 (72%) 49 (80%) 0.27
 Male patients 12 (19%) 18 (30%) 0.16
 Patients older than or equal 70 years 35 (55%) 34 (56%) 0.91
 Patients with symptoms longer than 7 days 10 (16%) 7 (12%) 0.50
 Patients with antibiotic therapy in the last 30 days 5 (8%) 10 (16%) 0.14
 Patients with diabetes 16 (25%) 8 (13%) 0.092
 Patients with recurrent UTIs 5 (8%) 9 (15%) 0.22
 Patients with urologic interventions in the last 30 days 3 (5%) 2 (3%) 0.69
 Patients with anatomic abnormalities 2 (3%) 5 (8%) 0.22
 Patients with immunosuppression 0 2 (3%) 0.14
Patients from long-term healthcare facilities 5 (8%) 4 (7%) 0.79
Hospitalized patients, n (%) 45 (70%) 45 (74%) 0.67
  1. aχ2 test for categorical variables, 2-sample t-test for continuous variables.
  2. bProstatitis (n = 2), infected kidney cyst (n = 1), endocarditis (n = 1), fibromyalgia syndrome (n = 1).
  3. IQR, Interquartile range; y, Years.