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Table 3 Effect of exercise on quality of life, anxiety, and depression based on an intention-to-treat analysis

From: Effects of an 18-week exercise programme started early during breast cancer treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    Baseline to 18 weeks (i.e., post intervention) Baseline to 36 weeks
   Baseline Within-group difference Between-group difference Within-group difference Between-group difference
   Mean (SD) Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] ES Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] ES
EORTC questionnaire             
 Quality of life UC 72.5 (19.4) −4.5 [−8.8 to −0.3]   Reference   5.5 [1.2 to 9.9]   Reference  
  I 74.8 (20.4) −4.4 [−8.4 to −0.4] 2.3 [−2.4 to 6.9] 0.11 4.2 [0.0 to 8.3] 0.7 [−4.1 to 5.5] 0.03
 Physical functioning UC 85.0 (14.3) −5.8 [−9.1 to −2.5]   Reference   0.8 [−2.5 to 4.2]   Reference  
  I 85.3 (14.2) −4.2 [−7.3 to −1.1] 2.2 [−2.1 to 6.6] 0.16 0.4 [−2.8 to 3.6] 0.0 [−4.5 to 4.5] 0.00
 Role functioning UC 69.1 (23.6) −6.7 [−12.4 to −1.0]   Reference   6.1 [0.3 to 11.9]   Reference  
  I 69.8 (23.5) −1.3 [−6.7 to 4.1] 5.9 [−1.1 to 12.9] 0.25 10.4 [4.8 to 15.9] 4.1 [−3.1 to 11.4] 0.18
 Emotional functioning UC 79.2 (17.9) 2.5 [−1.0 to 6.0]   Reference   4.3 [0.7 to 7.9]   Reference  
  I 80.9 (18.2) 0.9 [−2.3 to 4.2] −0.6 [−5.3 to 4.1] −0.03 0.4 [−3.0 to 3.7] −3.0 [−7.8 to 1.9] −0.16
 Cognitive functioning UC 81.7 (23.4) −7.8 [−13.1 to −2.5]   Reference   −6.9 [−12.3 to −1.5]   Reference  
  I 78.8 (23.6) −10.1 [−15.1 to −5.1] −4.4 [−11.3 to 2.5] −0.19 −7.0 [−12.1 to −1.8] −2.0 [−9.2 to 5.1] −0.09
 Social functioning UC 80.9 (22.2) −9.0 [−14.2 to −3.7]   Reference   1.3 [−4.1 to 6.7]   Reference  
  I 80.6 (22.0) −7.6 [−12.6 to −2.7] 1.0 [−5.3 to 7.3] 0.04 3.7 [−1.4 to 8.9] 1.3 [−5.1 to 7.8] 0.06
 Fatigue UC 33.4 (23.4) 9.0 [3.9 to 14.1]   Reference   −1.5 [−6.7 to 3.7]   Reference  
  I 32.2 (25.1) 7.4 [2.5 to 12.2] −3.0 [−9.1 to 3.1] −0.12 −3.9 [−8.8 to 1.1] −2.6 [−8.9 to 3.7] −0.11
 Pain UC 22.9 (25.4) −0.4 [−5.7 to 4.8]   Reference   −0.6 [−6.0 to 4.8]   Reference  
  I 24.0 (23.2) −3.1 [−8.1 to 1.8] −3.0 [−9.4 to 3.5] −0.12 −0.5 [−5.7 to 4.6] −0.1 [−6.7 to 6.6] 0.00
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire             
 Depression UC 2.4 (2.7) 1.0 [0.4 to 1.5]   Reference   0.0 [−0.6 to 0.6]   Reference  
  I 2.5 (3.1) 0.8 [0.3 to 1.3] 0.0 [−0.8 to 0.7] −0.01 0.0 [−0.5 to 0.6] 0.2 [−0.6 to 0.9] 0.06
 Anxiety UC 4.2 (3.0) −0.5 [−1.1 to 0.1]   Reference   −0.3 [−0.9 to 0.3]   Reference  
  I 4.4 (3.4) −0.2 [−0.8 to 0.3] 0.2 [−0.6 to 1.0] 0.06 0.2 [−0.4 to 0.8] 0.5 [−0.4 to 1.3] 0.15
  1. ES effect size, I intervention group, UC usual care group
  2. Negative ES for fatigue, pain, anxiety, and depression and positive ES for quality of life, physical functioning, role functioning, emotional functioning, cognitive functioning and social functioning indicate effects in favour of the exercise intervention group
  3. Between-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at 18 and 36 weeks, adjusted for age, hospital, radiotherapy, use of tissue expander, receptor status and the value of the outcome variable at baseline
  4. Within-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at baseline, 18 and 36 weeks, adjusted for age, hospital, radiotherapy, use of tissue expander, and receptor status
  5. Baseline results and within-group differences were based on participants having baseline measurements (102 participants in each group). Between-group differences were based on participants for whom measurements at 18 or 36 weeks were available (93 intervention and 89 usual care)