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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients and association with outcome

From: Microvascular obstruction and endothelial activation are independently associated with the clinical manifestations of severe falciparum malaria in adults: an observational study

Variable N All n = 142 Survivors n = 95 Deaths n = 47 P b
Age (years) 141 35 (25–45) 31 (24–46) 35 (25–45) 1.00
Sex (% male) 141 71 % 74 % 64 % 0.24
Glasgow Coma Score 142 9 (6–13) 10 (8–14) 8 (4–10) <0.001
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 140 82 (72–93) 80 (72–90) 83 (71–97) 0.32
Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 137 30 (26–36) 30 (25–36) 32 (28–40) 0.02
Oxygen saturation (%) 138 96 (94–97) 96 (94–97) 96 (93–97) 0.39
Temperature (°C) 142 38 (37.2– 38.9) 37.9 (37.2–38.6) 38.2 (37.1–39.2) 0.25
Heart rate (beats/min) 138 109 (96–122) 107 (93–119) 117 (102–132) 0.02
Plasma sodium (mmol/L) 140 135 (132–139) 135 (132–139) 135 (132–140) 0.4
Plasma potassium (mmol/L) 139 4 (3.6–4.5) 3.9 (3.6–4.4) 4.2 (3.8–4.6) 0.05
Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 141 14.3 (8.8–24.1) 12.9 (8.2 –22) 17.9 (10.3–29.3) 0.02
Plasma creatinine (μmol/L) 140 136 (88–220) 122 (86–193) 150 (97–300) 0.16
Plasma lactate (mmol/L) 141 4.3 (2.6–6.6) 3.7 (2.2–5.1) 6.3 (4.1–10) <0.001
Base deficit (meq/L) 140 8 (3–12) 6.5 (2–10) 12 (5–17) <0.001
White cell count (x 109/L) 104 8.5 (6.1–10.9) 8 (5.4–10) 10.9 (7.2–11.5) 0.002
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 139 9.6 (7.8–11.3) 9.3 (8–11.2) 10.2 (7–12) 0.64
Platelet count (x 109/L) 107 36 (21–66) 43 (24–87) 27 (15–41) 0.02
Microvascular obstruction (%)a 142 11.9 (3–26.7) 8.3 (1.7–26.6) 14.9 (6.6–34.9) 0.039
PfHRP2 (ng/mL) 135 2,268 (960–4,789) 2,151 (881–4,261) 2,584 (1,075–5,946) 0.17
Parasite count (parasites/uL) 134 67,133 (20,253–274,499) 97,968 (11,681–310,546) 60,288 (24,116–176,845) 0.59
Angiopoietin-2 (ng/mL) 126 19.1 (10.8–29.1) 14.9 (9.8–29.3) 21.9 (13.4–29.4) 0.035
L-arginine (μmol/L) 126 59.6 (44.3–79.9) 59.6 (44.1–77.8) 60.1 (38.3–71.5) 0.78
ADMA (μmol/L) 126 0.77 (0.58–1.01) 0.77 (0.57–0.99) 0.77 (0.58–1.18) 0.58
L-arginine: ADMA ratio 126 73.3 (59.8–90.6) 72.7 (62.7–89.6) 73.5 (58.6–90.7) 0.43
VEGF (pg/mL) 125 27.3 (0–59.2) 24.9 (0–54.7) 34.1.7 (0–64.9) 0.93
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) 137 6.6 (5–9.2) 6.8 (5.3–9.3) 6.2 (3.6–9.1) 0.07
  1. All values represent the median (interquartile range) unless otherwise stated. aDetermined using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. The percentage of capillaries with a blood flow of <100 μm/s. bStatistical significance for a difference between survivors and non-survivors. ADMA: Asymmetric dimethylarginine; PfHRP2: Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2; VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor