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Table 3 Univariate and multivariable associations between diabetes and other risk factors for tuberculosis

From: Risk of tuberculosis in patients with diabetes: population based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

Variable Crude rate ratio Adjusted rate ratioa
(95 % CI) (95 % CI)
No diabetes 1.00 1.00
Diabetes 1.20 (1.02–1.41) 1.30 (1.01–1.66)
Age (per 1 year increase) 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 1.03 (1.02–1.04)
Smoking   
 Non-smoker 1.00 1.00
 Ex-smoker 1.23 (1.06–1.44) 1.27 (1.00–1.61)
 Current smoker 1.73 (1.48–2.03) 1.67 (1.27–2.19)
Alcohol intake   
 Non-drinker 1.00 1.00
 Ex-drinker 0.64 (0.44–0.94) 1.00 (0.58–1.73)
 Moderate drinker 0.50 (0.42–0.59) 0.86 (0.65–1.13)
 Heavy drinker 0.66 (0.51–0.85) 1.04 (0.69–1.59)
BMIb   
 <20 1.00 1.00
 20- < 25 0.41 (0.33–0.51) 0.62 (0.42–0.90)
 25- < 30 0.26 (0.21–0.32) 0.35 (0.24–0.51)
 ≥30 0.21 (0.17–0.27) 0.29 (0.19–0.45)
Ethnicity   
 White 1.00 1.00
 South Asian 9.41 (7.48–11.84) 10.77 (7.84–14.81)
 Black 3.47 (2.11–5.72) 2.28 (1.01–5.16)
 Mixed or Other 2.84 (1.70–4.75) 2.50 (1.23–5.07)
Index of Multiple Deprivationc   
 1 – Least deprived 1.00 1.00
 2 1.45 (1.10–1.91) 1.24 (0.89–1.72)
 3 1.38 (1.03–1.84) 1.19 (0.85–1.67)
 4 1.76 (1.33–2.33) 1.36 (0.97–1.90)
 5 – Most deprived 2.31 (1.75–3.04) 1.47 (1.05–2.07)
Consultation rated   
 1st tertile (0–6) 1.00 N/A
 2nd tertile (7–12) 2.08 (1.71–2.54)  
 3rd tertile (13-maximum) 4.58 (3.81–5.51)  
Total number of consultationse   
 1st tertile (1–15) 1.00 N/A
 2nd tertile (16–49) 0.54 (0.46–0.63)  
 3rd tertile (50-maximum) 0.26 (0.23–0.31)  
  1. aModel includes: diabetes, age, smoking status, alcohol status, BMI, ethnicity and index of multiple deprivation
  2. bBMI: body mass index in kg/m2
  3. cIndex of multiple deprivation in quintiles and available for English patients only
  4. dConsultation rate defined as number of face to face consultations per year of follow-up; tertiles in order of increasing consultation rate
  5. eConsultation number defined as total number of face to face consultations during patient follow-up; tertiles in order of increasing number of consultations
  6. CI confidence interval, NA not available