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Fig. 8 | BMC Medicine

Fig. 8

From: Asymptomatic transmission and the resurgence of Bordetella pertussis

Fig. 8

Can an inefficient vaccine lead to increased transmission? Figure demonstrates the fold increase in observed symptomatic and unobserved asymptomatic infections after transitioning from a wP to an aP vaccine. This is calculated by dividing the number of symptomatic or asymptomatic cases with various levels of aP coverage (reported on the x-axis) and 0 % wP coverage by the number of cases with 90 % wP coverage and 0 % aP coverage. This was designed to simulate the switch from wP to aP in the US and UK (going from high wP coverage to coverage with aP). We see an increase in symptomatic cases across a large range of aP vaccination coverage levels. See Additional file 1 for model details. The gray band indicates the empirical 5.4-fold (95 % bootstrap confidence interval: 0.4–13.3) increase in cases in the US comparing 2012 to the years 1985 through 1995. The model recreates the observed increase in cases. Parameters: birth rate (μ) = death rate (ν) = 1/75 years −1; recovery rates for symptomatic (γ s ) and asymptomatic (γ a ) = 14 days −1; probability of symptomatic infection (σ) = 0.25; baseline wP vaccination rate = 0.9; transmissibility (β) is calculated such that R0=18

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